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Biomechanics of the lumbar spine
Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry
Epidemiology of low back pain
35 other sections not shown
abdominal abnormalities activity acute ankylosing spondylitis arthritis associated biopsy Bone Joint Surg bone scan bony cauda equina cause chemonucleolysis chronic pain chymopapain Clin Orthop clinical collagen compression CT scan cyst decompression deformity degenerative demonstrated diagnosis disc herniation disc space discectomy disease disorders epidural evaluation facet joints factors fixation flexion fractures fusion herniated disc iliac imaging increased infection injury instability instrumentation intervertebral disc involvement kyphosis laminectomy lateral lesion ligament loads lordosis low back pain lumbar disc lumbar lordosis lumbar spine lumbosacral motion muscle spasm myelogram myelography Nachemson needle nerve root neural neurological normal nucleus pulposus occur Orthopaedic osteomyelitis osteoporosis pathology pedicle physical position posterior potential present pressure procedure proteoglycans radicular radiographic radiological rods rotation sacral sacroiliac sacrum sciatica scoliosis segment spinal canal spinal cord spinal stenosis spondylolisthesis spondylolysis surgery surgical symptoms syndrome technique therapy thoracic thoracolumbar tissue treatment trigger points tumor usually vertebral body