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Biomechanics of the lumbar spine
Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry
Chapter 4 Epidemiology of low back pain
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abdominal abnormalities activity acute ankylosing spondylitis annulus arthritis associated biopsy Bone Joint Surg bone scan bony cauda equina cause chemonucleolysis chronic pain chymopapain Clin Orthop clinical collagen compression CT scan cyst decompression deformity degenerative demonstrated diagnosis disc herniation disc space discectomy disease disorders epidural evaluation facet joints factors fixation flexion fractures fusion herniated disc iliac increased infection injury instability instrumentation intervertebral disc involvement kyphosis laminectomy lateral lesion ligament loads lordosis low back pain lumbar disc lumbar lordosis lumbar spine lumbosacral motion muscle spasm myelogram myelography Nachemson needle nerve root neural neurological normal nucleus pulposus occur Orthopaedic osteomyelitis osteoporosis pathology patients pedicle physical position post-operative posterior potential pressure procedure proteoglycans radicular radiographic radiological rods rotation sacral sacrum sciatica scoliosis segment spinal canal spinal cord spinal stenosis spondylolisthesis spondylolysis surgery surgical symptoms syndrome technique therapy thoracic thoracolumbar tissue treatment trigger points tumor usually vertebral body