Diving Manual, July 1916

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1916 - Deep diving - 120 pages
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Page 114 - An aggregate of cells together with their intercellular substance, forming one of the structural materials out of which the body of a plant or an animal is built up. Trachea. — Windpipe ; in vertebrates, the main trunk of the system of tubes by which air passes to and from the lungs; in man it is about 4...
Page 96 - With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, so that the weight of your body is gradually brought to bear upon the patient. The shoulder should be directly over the heel of the hand at the end of the forward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This operation should take about two seconds.
Page 110 - Epiphysis A part or process of a bone which ossifies separately and subsequently becomes ankylosed to the main part of the bone. In...
Page 7 - A law defining the volume and pressure of gases at constantly maintained temperatures. It states that the volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure so long as the temperature remains the same ; or, the pressure of a gas is proportional to its density.
Page 115 - Dizziness, or swimming of the head ; an affection of the head in which objects, though stationary, appear to move in various directions, and the person affected finds it difficult to maintain an erect posture. It results from changes in the blood supply to the brain and often precedes attacks of epilepsy or cerebral hemorrhage.
Page 96 - Ruptured cuff of the dress and the diver raising hig arm, as when trying to reach the escape valve (squeeze in this case being slight, but enough to interfere with respiration). In cases of slight squeeze, as caused by the regulating escape valve being wide open and a minimum air supply, extra pressure is exerted on the chest (suit flat). The air within the air passages is at a lower pressure than the pressure without, and the diver is forced to breathe against this extra pressure. Respiratory embarrassment...
Page 12 - ... exerted on the diver's body will tend to drive it into the helmet. The result is most apt to be a serious injury or immediate death for the diver. Falls from shallow to deeper depths are the most serious, as the relative difference in pressures is greater. This may be explained by the following: If a diver at the surface, in 14.7 pounds pressure to the square inch (absolute), should fall 33 feet under water, every square inch of his body would have an additional pressure of 14.7 pounds, or 29.4...
Page 17 - ... per cent CO2 as practicable. In utilizing air from high-pressure accumulators it must be remembered that the air in the cylinders of the compressors is greatly heated in charging the accumulators, and oil with a high flash point must be used, castor oil if possible, so that no flashing in the cylinders will take place, pro4539—22 - 11 ducing CO and CO2.
Page 108 - ... close to one another and not separate under any condition. To be efficient and successful a party must take every precaution for its own safety. If one person in a party faints or receives an injury he becomes a burden instead of a help, for the entire party must at once conduct him to the surface or to fresh air. One or two stretchers should always be at hand. A relief station or base of operations should be established at the end of the good air and a relief crew with knapsacks should be stationed...
Page 99 - It is a common superstition among divers that if the dress is ruptured drowning will result. Such is not the case. Diving with helmets only has been accomplished in depths up to 140 feet as readily as with the complete apparatus, but the practice is deemed unsafe. As long as the air pressure within the helmet is maintained and the diver remains in the erect position, water can not enter the helmet and the diver will not drown. By simply closing the escape valve, air is forced down into the dress...

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