Doctrine, Dynamic and Difference: To the Heart of the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Differentiated Consensus on Justification
One of the most divisive issues in Western Christianity since the Reformation is the question of how humans are justified by God. In 1999, after many decades of ecumenical dialogue, Lutherans and Roman Catholics have declared that this issue of 'justification by faith' is no longer a cause of division between them. One of the fascinating features of this Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ) is that it expresses a 'differentiated consensus' on justification.
The method of differentiated consensus is generally regarded as an important methodological step forward in the ecumenical dialogue. It has been used and referred to in ecumenical documents published after 1999. But what are its meaning and implications? This study attempts to clarify the method of differentiated consensus by (1) investigating the process of doctrinal rapprochement which led up to the JDDJ, (2) examining the way the consensus takes shape in the document itself, (3) analyzing arguments offered by critics and advocates of the official dialogue and (4) reflecting on the concept of doctrinal difference.
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Ill The Content of the JDDJ
e Law and Gospel
Faith and Good Works
Justification as Criterion and the Church
Different Implications of Recognizing the Consensus 133
b Primary and Secondary Criteria
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affirmation ambiguity aspects Balthasar believer believer’s Christ Christian concept concerns concupiscence condemnations created grace criticism crucial decree on justification dialogue on justification dialogue partner differentiated consensus distinction DNK-LWB doctrine of justification document ecclesial ecclesiological ecumenical dialogue emphasis existential expressed ﬁdes Finnish interpretation Finnish Luther Flogaus fundamental difference GER-DER gospel Grunddifferenz hermeneutical human cooperation human freedom Ibid idea implies issue iustus et peccator JDDJ Justiﬁcation Karl Rahner Kirche law and gospel legitimate Leuenberg Leuenberg Agreement Lutheran and Roman Lutheran churches Lutheran paragraph Lutheran theology Lutheran World Federation Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue Mannermaa ofjustification one’s ontological peccatum perspective Pesch Peura Protestant question Rahner real presence reality Rechtfertigung Rechtfertigungslehre relationship response righteousness role Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic paragraph Roman Catholic teaching Roman Catholic theology sacramental salvation sapiential theology simul iustus sinfulness sinner soteriology statement subsection teaching on justification theologians Theosis totus-totus tradition Trent Tridentine trust unity VELKD