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acre allow amount basin becomes better bottom brick carried cause clay close collars collecting complete condition connection considerable cost course covered crop cultivation deep deposit depth direction discharge diseases distance ditch drain drainage earth effect enter entirely evaporation experience fact fall feet field flow four give given grade greater ground heat heavy houses important improvement inches increase joints labor laid land laterals laying least length less lower manner marked marsh material matters means measure moisture nearly necessary operation outlet particles pass pipes placed plants position possible practice prevent probably produce proper rain reach receive removed result rise roots season secure sewers side silt soil space spring stakes stone sufficient surface taken tile tion usually whole
Page 2 - In the Clerk's Office of the District Conrt of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
Page 71 - Deeper drains at a minimum depth of four feet, designed with the two-fold object of not only freeing the active soil from stagnant and injurious water, but of converting the water falling on the surface into an agent for fertilizing ; no drainage being deemed efficient that did not both remove the water falling on the surface, and ' keep down the subterranean water at a depth exceeding the power of capillary attraction to elevate it to near the surface.
Page 79 - ... the rising of the floor is a more usual and far more inconvenient occurrence than the falling of the roof: the weight of the two sides squeezes up the floor. We have seen it formed into a very decided arch without fracture. Exactly a similar operation takes place in the drain. No one had till recently dreamed of forming a tile drain, the bottom of which a man was not to approach personally within twenty inches or two feet.
Page 79 - A doggerel song, quite destitute of humor, informs us that tiles of this sort were used in 1760, at Grandesburg Hall, in Suffolk, by Mr. Charles Lawrence, the owner of the estate. The earliest of which 'we had experience were of large area and of weak form. Constant failures resulted from their use, and the cause was investigated; many of the tiles were found to be choked up with clay, and many to be broken longitudinally through the crown. For the first evil, two remedies were adopted; a sole of...
Page 80 - ... part.* When the Regent's Park was first drained large conduits were in fashion, and they were made circular by placing one horseshoe tile upon another. It would be difficult to invent a weaker conduit. On re-drainage innumerable instances were found in which the upper tile was broken through the crown, and had dropped into the lower. Next came the...
Page 79 - ... material, even when the drain is completed, offers an imperfect resistance, but the constant pressure together of the sides, even when it does not produce a fracture of the soil, catches hold of the feet of the tile and breaks it through the crown. Consider the case of a drain formed...
Page 84 - ... inches. The whole space between the collar and the pipe on each side of the collar is open, and affords no resistance to the entrance of water; while at the same time the superincumbent arch of the collar protects the junction of two pipes from the intrusion of particles of soil. We confess to some original misgivings that a pipe resting only on an inch at each end, and lying hollow, might prove weak and liable to fracture by weight pressing on it from above ; but the fear was illusory. Small...
Page 166 - ... to Mr. Johnston. Eight acres and some rods of this land, at one side, averaged 94 bushels, or the trifling increase of 84 bushels per acre over what it would bear before those in107 significant clay tiles were buried in the ground.
Page 14 - ... is in fact supplied with a certain amount of this necessary substance, and owing to this germination does take place, although by no means under such advantageous circumstances as it would were the soil in a better condition.
Page 67 - ... against evaporation ; and we are inclined to believe that any prejudicial combined action of attraction and evaporation is thereby well guarded against. The facts stated seem to prove that less will not suffice. So much on the score of temperature, but this is not all. Do the roots of esculents wish to penetrate into the earth — at least, to the depth of some feet? We believe that they do.