Drug Use, Policy, and Management

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Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002 - Political Science - 188 pages
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This new edition provides an up-to-date examination of the key issues of the drug problem, including cigarettes, heroin, alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. It offers a current review of definitions of drug use and dependence, the latest developments regarding tobacco use and the historical agreement between government and industry, and research and analysis from a cross-cultural perspective. A detailed account of opium and heroin distribution and control in the region of Afghanistan provide valuable insight.

Whether it be illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin, and cocaine or legal substances including cigarettes and alcohol, drug use is a deeply imbedded characteristic of society. An immense amount of money and human resources is spent in the United States to address drug use. For example, the cost of substance abuse to the U.S. economy each year is estimated to be over $414 billion. In terms of illegal drugs alone, the U.S. drug market has been estimated to be $150 billion a year. The annual federal anti-drug budget for law enforcement is about $12 billion per year; and about $3 billion goes to overseas drug wars alone with about half of that amount going to Colombia to eliminate opium and coca cultivation. It has been reported that substance abuse and addiction will add at least $41 billion to the costs of elementary and secondary education for 2001 due to class disruption and violence, special education and tutoring, teacher turnover, truancy, children left behind, student assistance programs, property damage, injury, and counseling. The cost to the nation for each of its hard-core addicts, per year, is about $30,000. The amount spent on the drug problem does not include the cost of drug use measured in human suffering, increased violence, and lost lives, nor does it include the damage done by cigarettes and alcohol.

The second, updated edition of this important work examines issues about the use and abuse of legal and illegal drugs from multiple perspectives including the social context of reality, historical and present patterns of use, causal factors associated with addiction, research findings including those of a cross-cultural nature, case studies of addicts, and the management of services provision.

 

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Contents

Drug Use and Abuse Definitions and the Social Context of RealityTobacco
1
A Review
6
The Social Context and Reality of Drug Use
12
Conclusion
19
Theoretical Considerations and Risk Factors
25
The Social Order
26
Physical Environment Values and Morals
27
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
30
Trends
112
Personality and Other Characteristics
117
Cocaine Highlights
120
Marijuana Is It Really a War of Values and Special Interests?
131
The FactsWho and What to Believe
137
Social Political and Economic Factors Leading to Policy Formation Trends
142
Trends
144
Reflections on the Dutch Experience
149

LABELINGCRIMINALIZATION PROCESS
36
BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
38
Conclusion
40
Heroin The King of Illegal Drugs
49
Trends
54
International Perspectives
57
Personality Characteristics
61
The Russian Crisis
64
Alcohol and the Alcoholic
87
Historical Perspective
88
Theories and Personality Characteristics
90
Trends
92
An International Perspective
97
Cocaine and Crack
107
Management Elements of Drug Treatment Services Organization and Development
155
Drug Treatment Services
156
Management of Drug Services
157
Organization and Management Needs and Problems
158
Treatment and Relapse Prevention Strategies
163
Research Evaluation and the Dissemination of Information
164
The Final StrawA Response to the War against Drugs
171
What do they Show?
173
What Does All This Costs?
174
Prevention and Treatment
176
And the Debate Goes On
178
Index
183
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

RICHARD E. ISRALOWITZ is Professor and Director, Israel Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Resources Center, Ben Gurion University.

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