Drug Use, Policy, and Management
This new edition provides an up-to-date examination of the key issues of the drug problem, including cigarettes, heroin, alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. It offers a current review of definitions of drug use and dependence, the latest developments regarding tobacco use and the historical agreement between government and industry, and research and analysis from a cross-cultural perspective. A detailed account of opium and heroin distribution and control in the region of Afghanistan provide valuable insight.
Whether it be illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin, and cocaine or legal substances including cigarettes and alcohol, drug use is a deeply imbedded characteristic of society. An immense amount of money and human resources is spent in the United States to address drug use. For example, the cost of substance abuse to the U.S. economy each year is estimated to be over $414 billion. In terms of illegal drugs alone, the U.S. drug market has been estimated to be $150 billion a year. The annual federal anti-drug budget for law enforcement is about $12 billion per year; and about $3 billion goes to overseas drug wars alone with about half of that amount going to Colombia to eliminate opium and coca cultivation. It has been reported that substance abuse and addiction will add at least $41 billion to the costs of elementary and secondary education for 2001 due to class disruption and violence, special education and tutoring, teacher turnover, truancy, children left behind, student assistance programs, property damage, injury, and counseling. The cost to the nation for each of its hard-core addicts, per year, is about $30,000. The amount spent on the drug problem does not include the cost of drug use measured in human suffering, increased violence, and lost lives, nor does it include the damage done by cigarettes and alcohol.
The second, updated edition of this important work examines issues about the use and abuse of legal and illegal drugs from multiple perspectives including the social context of reality, historical and present patterns of use, causal factors associated with addiction, research findings including those of a cross-cultural nature, case studies of addicts, and the management of services provision.
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Drug Use and Abuse Definitions and the Social Context of RealityTobacco
The Social Context and Reality of Drug Use
Theoretical Considerations and Risk Factors
The Social Order
Physical Environment Values and Morals
Personality and Other Characteristics
Marijuana Is It Really a War of Values and Special Interests?
The FactsWho and What to Believe
Social Political and Economic Factors Leading to Policy Formation Trends
Reflections on the Dutch Experience
BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Heroin The King of Illegal Drugs
The Russian Crisis
Alcohol and the Alcoholic
Theories and Personality Characteristics
An International Perspective
Cocaine and Crack
Management Elements of Drug Treatment Services Organization and Development
Drug Treatment Services
Management of Drug Services
Organization and Management Needs and Problems
Treatment and Relapse Prevention Strategies
Research Evaluation and the Dissemination of Information
The Final StrawA Response to the War against Drugs
What do they Show?
What Does All This Costs?
Prevention and Treatment
And the Debate Goes On