Dynamics of Prejudice: A Psychological and Sociological Study of Veterans
In April-June 1946 a survey, ordered by the American Jewish Committee, was conducted among 150 World War II rank-and-file veterans, all of them male, white and non-Jewish, residing in Chicago. The survey aimed to examine the connection between the veterans' wartime experiences, postwar situation, and personality traits, on the one hand, and ethnic prejudices, primarily antisemitism (but also prejudices against Blacks and other minorities), on the other. The data suggest that ethnic intolerance is more a function of subjective perceptions than of the objective situation. Emphasizes principal factors which can explain the intolerance manifested by the veterans, such as subjective deprivation and downward social mobility, as well as somewhat lesser factors such as anxiety and the absense of adequate control of hostile discharge against ethnic minorities.
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DYNAMIC APPROACH TO INTOLERANCE
PATTERNS OF ETHNIC INTOLERANCE
STEREOTYPING THE MINORITY
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able acceptance action adequate aggression analysis answers anti-Negro attitudes anti-Semitism anxiety army asked associated attitudes basis cent Chapter demands deprivation desire develop discharge discipline discussion economic ethnic ethnic intolerance example existing experiences expressed external fact factors fear feelings felt findings four frequently future hand hostility important indicated individual influence institutions integration Intense interview intolerance Jewish Jews less living majority minority mobility Negroes objective officers opinions outspoken parents particular party pattern Percentage permit persecution person political position possible present problem questions reasons rejected relationship relatively religious responses restrictive revealed sample seemed showed significant social society soldiers spontaneously statements status stereotyped superego symbols TABLE tended tension things tion tolerant types veterans х х х