Dynamics of Prejudice: A Psychological and Sociological Study of Veterans
In April-June 1946 a survey, ordered by the American Jewish Committee, was conducted among 150 World War II rank-and-file veterans, all of them male, white and non-Jewish, residing in Chicago. The survey aimed to examine the connection between the veterans' wartime experiences, postwar situation, and personality traits, on the one hand, and ethnic prejudices, primarily antisemitism (but also prejudices against Blacks and other minorities), on the other. The data suggest that ethnic intolerance is more a function of subjective perceptions than of the objective situation. Emphasizes principal factors which can explain the intolerance manifested by the veterans, such as subjective deprivation and downward social mobility, as well as somewhat lesser factors such as anxiety and the absence of adequate control of hostile discharge against ethnic minorities.
DYNAMIC APPROACH TO INTOLERANCE
PATTERNS OF ETHNIC INTOLERANCE
STEREOTYPING THE MINORITY
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acceptance adequate aggression American Jewish Committee analysis anti anti-Negro attitudes anxiety apprehension army discipline army experiences asked associated bad break Bruno Bettelheim cent centage Chapter characterized Chicago civilian combat controlling institutions degree of intolerance depression discrimination economic ego strength ethnic intolerance evaluation example external control factors fear feelings of deprivation felt frustration German indicated individual individual's integration intense anti-Semites Intense Total interethnic hostility intermarriage interpersonal relationships interview Jewish Jews and Negroes MAX HORKHEIMER Morris Janowitz nomic opinions outgroup outspoken and intense outspoken anti-Semites Outspoken Stereotyped outspokenly parents pattern Percentage permit persecution political party prejudice problem psychological questions rejected relatively religious Religious Denomination responses revealed sample seemed Semitism significant social mobility society soldiers spontaneously statements status Stereotyped and Intense stereotyped anti-Semites superego symbols TABLE tendencies things tion Tolerant Stereotyped Outspoken tolerant veterans unemployment X X X