Dyslexia and Hyperlexia: Diagnosis and Management of Developmental Reading Disabilities

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 1989 - Education - 302 pages
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Even though I had been studying reading problems in children for a number of years as a means of understanding cognitive processes, I became deeply committed to the study of developmental dyslexia after my encounter with S. H. , a dyslexic college student. Until then, dyslexia to me remained an interesting phenomenon but somewhat removed from the mainstream of my research interests. The facts that, in spite of his superior IQ, S. H. could read no better than a child in the fifth grade and misspelled even common words such as was and here, however, took me by surprise and made me appreciate the intriguing and challenging nature of developmental dyslexia. This led to a series of studies of college students with reading disability, a group that is relatively unexplored. The general plan of these investigations was to study a small number of disabled readers at any given time, rather intensively. Even though this approach limits the generalizability of the research findings, it lays bare some of the most interesting facts about dyslexia which are obscured in large-scale statistical studies. These studies have now extended well over a decade and are still continuing. As soon as these studies were started, it became obvious that not all reading-disabled college students are alike and that disabled readers could be classified into three broad categories: those with poor decod ing skill, those with poor comprehension ability, and those with a combination of these two deficits.
 

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Contents

READING DISABILITIES THE PUZZLE AND THE HISTORY
2
The Medical Men and the Problem of Etiology
3
22 The Educators
10
222 The Problem of Methodology
13
23 Neuropsychology
14
233 Recent Developments
19
2332 Acquired or traumatic reading disorders
21
2333 Comparison of acquired and developmental reading disorders
23
Deficit in Assembling Comprehension
135
NOTES
136
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA DELINEATION OF THE DISORDERS
138
12 ReadingLanguage Relationship
140
A Componential Differentiation
144
14 An Operational Definition
152
2 HYPERLEXIA
153
Differentiation of the Syndromes
154

AN ORCHESTRATED EFFORT
25
32 The Neurological Approach
26
34 The Educational Approach
28
HISTORY OF RESEARCH
29
42 Recognition That Some Children Can Decode Words Much Better Than They Can Comprehend
30
43 Emergence of the Concept of Hyperlexia
32
5 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
35
THE READING PROCESS
37
2 THE VISUAL ENCODING STAGE
38
22 ShortTerm Visual Memory
41
3 THE WORDRECOGNITION STAGE
42
32 Models of Lexicon
44
321 The Feature Model of Lexicon
45
322 The Search Model of Lexicon
47
33 Issues in Word Recognition
49
332 Must the Written Word Be Converted into Phonological Code to Be Recognized?
52
333 The Role of Phonology in Reading
57
3332 Evidence from neuropsychology
65
3333 Evidence from developmental psychology
67
3334 Evidence from studies of specific reading disability
70
334 Conclusions
73
4 READING COMPREHENSION BEYOND THE WORD LEVEL
75
42 TextLevel Comprehension
77
43 Metacognition
79
431 Verbal Reports
80
432 Online Processing Measures
81
433 Confidence Estimates
82
52 Reading Comprehension and Listening Comprehension
85
522 Review Studies
87
523 Implications
89
ETIOLOGIES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA
91
212 ShortTerm Visual Memory
93
213 Conclusions
96
22 WordRecognition Stage
97
2211 Capacity
98
2212 Strategies
99
2213 Speed of retrieval
102
2214 Phonological coding
104
222 Conclusions
107
23 Reading Comprehension Beyond Word Level
108
231 Syntactical Ability of the Dyslexic Reader
109
232 Semantic Ability of the Dyslexic Reader
114
233 Studies of Listening Comprehension
117
24 Etiology of Developmental Dyslexia
120
242 The Phonological Deficit Hypothesis
125
3 HYPERLEXIA
129
312 Word Comprehension
132
32 Reading Comprehension Beyond Word Level
133
322 TextLevel Comprehension
134
23 An Operational Definition of Hyperlexia
157
3 A MODEL OF READING AND READING DISABILITIES
158
THE SYNDROMES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA
162
111 Slow Reading Speed
163
112 Errors in Oral Reading
164
113 Poor Spelling
166
114 Errors of Syntax in Written Language
172
12 Variant Symptoms
176
122 Neurological Soft Signs
177
13 Two issues Regarding the Syndrome of Developmental Dyslexia
180
132 Is Dyslexia OrthographySpecific?
183
2 THE SYNDROME OF HYPERLEXIA
188
213 Spontaneous Acquisition of Decoding Skill
189
22 Variant Symptoms
190
222 Neurological Impairment
191
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF READING DISABILITIES
193
2 RATIONALE OF THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE
196
22 Evaluation of Reading Components
197
GRADES 4 AND ABOVE
201
32 Quantitative Evaluation
204
33 Qualitative Evaluation
206
34 Application of the Diagnostic Procedure Grades 4 and Above
208
GRADES 1 AND 2
211
42 Qualitative Evaluation
213
5 IDENTIFICATION OF THE HYPERLEXIC CHILD
217
TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF READING DISABILITIES
219
2 TREATMENT OF READING DISABILITIES
220
212 Severity of the Reading Problem
223
213 Interest and Motivation of the Reader
224
22 Treatment of Reading Disability in Dyslexic Students
225
222 Spelling as a Means of Improving Decoding Skill
230
223 Using Computers to Improve Decoding Skills
231
23 Treatment of Reading Problems in Poor Comprehenders
233
232 Improving Sentence Comprehension
236
233 Improving Text Comprehension
237
234 Improving Metacognition Skills
240
235 Improving Comprehension Through Writing
243
3 MANAGEMENT OF READING DISABILITIES
244
31 Management of Dyslexia
245
312 Student Advocacy
247
313 Counseling
248
NOTE
249
REFERENCES
250
APPENDIX I
277
APPENDIX II
283
AUTHOR INDEX
292
SUBJECT INDEX
300
Copyright

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Page 262 - M. (1987). Using Computer Guided Practice to Increase Decoding Fluency in Learning Disabled Children: A study Using the Hint and Hunt I Program.
Page 262 - Hinshelwood, J. (1907). Four cases of congenital word-blindness occurring in the same family.
Page 270 - Prevalence and Types of Dyslexia,' in A. Benton and D. Pearl (eds.), Dyslexia: An Appraisal of Current Knowledge, Oxford University Press, New York. Rutter, M. and Yule, W.: 1975, 'The Concept of Specific Reading Retardation,
Page 263 - Kennedy, DK, and Weener, P. (1973) 'Visual and auditory training with the cloze procedure to improve reading and listening comprehension, Reading Research Quarterly, 8, 524-543.
Page 258 - The effect of kinaesthetic factors in the development of word recognition in the case of non-readers.
Page 265 - Clinical Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Resolution of an Irresolute Problem.

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Indiana State University

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