ESA, Endangered Species Act

Front Cover
American Bar Association, 2001 - Education - 203 pages
2 Reviews
Provides an objective overview of what the ESA says and means, based upon the language of the statute itself and the regulations that implement it, as well as the judicial decisions interpreting each. Specific chapters cover critical habitat designation, conservation, prohibited acts and penalties, Section 7 consultation, incidental take permits, the Section 7 exemption process, state and federal interactions, international application, experimental populations, and citizen suits. Appendixes define acronyms, answer frequently asked questions, and describe key cases. A glossary is also included. Sullins is an attorney-advisor for the United State Department of the Interior Solicitor's Office in Boise, Idaho. c. Book News Inc.
 

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Contents

Executive Summary
1
12 Purposes of the Endangered Species Act
2
13 Basic Structure of the ESA
3
Listing and Critical Designation
5
22 What Is a Species?
6
221 Distinct Population Segments DPSs
8
23 Listing Criteria
11
231 Best Scientific and Commercial Data Available
13
561 Not All Irreversible or Irretrievable Commitments of Resources Are Prohibited
84
57 Conferencing
86
Incidental Take Permits and Other Allowable Take
87
62 Incidental Take Permits
88
63 Habitat Conservation Plans
89
631 Scope of an HCP
90
632 HCP Mitigation Requirements
91
633 NoSurprises Policy
93

24 Candidate Species
15
25 The Petition Process
16
251 The 90Day Finding
18
252 12Month Finding
19
26 Rulemaking Procedures Necessary to List a Species
20
261 Proposed Listing Contents
21
262 Notice and Comment
22
263 The Final Rule
23
27 Emergency Listings
24
28 Critical Habitat
26
281 Prudent and Determinable
27
282 Critical Habitat Designation and Revision
28
Conservation Section 7a1 and Recovery Planning
29
32 Section 7a1 Conservation Obligations
31
Mandatory or Voluntary?
32
33 Recovery Plans
34
331 Discretion of FWSNMFS in Recovery Plan Preparation and Content
36
Prohibited Acts and Penalties ESA Sections 9 and 11
39
411 Conduct Prohibited
40
412 Threatened Species and Section 4d Rules
42
413 Plants
43
414 Prohibited Take and the Harm Debate
44
Habitat Modification May Result in Prohibited Harm
45
Harm Definition Upheld
46
The New Era of Section 9 Litigation
49
4144 Injury
52
Overview
54
422 Scienter
55
423 Bodily Harm Defense
57
Section 7 Consultation
59
52 Agency Action
61
521 Incremental Step Consultation
63
522 The Role of Private Applicants
64
53 Effects of the Action
67
531 The Environmental Baseline
68
532 Direct and Indirect Effects
69
533 Interrelated and Interdependent Activities
70
54 The Consultation Process
71
Screening the Action
72
5412 Major Construction Activity?
73
Biological Assessment Preparation or Informal Consultation
74
5422 Biological Assessments
75
Formal Consultation
76
5431 Biological Opinion
77
5432 Jeopardy Adverse Modification and Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives
78
5433 Incidental Take Statements
80
544 Reinitiation of Consultation
82
56 IrreversibleIrretrievable Commitments of Resources
83
634 Consultation Requirement
95
64 Enhancement of Survival and Safe Harbor Permits
96
65 Miscellaneous Taking Exceptions
99
66 Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances
100
Section 7 Exemption Process
103
72 Applying for an Exemption
104
722 When to Apply for an Exemption
105
724 Initial Secretarial Action on the Application
106
Phase I Consideration by the Secretary
107
732 Hearings
108
733 The Secretarys Report
109
Phase II The Endangered Species Committee
110
742 The Exemption Decision
111
743 Mitigation and Enhancement
112
StateFederal Interactions under the ESA
115
82 The ESA as a Valid Exercise of Congressional Commerce Power
117
821 Preemption of State Law
118
83 Section 6 Cooperative Agreements
119
84 1994 NMFSFWS Policy Regarding States Roles
120
International Application of the ESA
121
92 International Cooperation
122
93 International Applicability of Various ESA Provisions
123
932 Designation of Critical Habitat
124
934 Recovery Planning
125
94 Implementation of CITES and the Western Hemisphere Convention
126
942 Western Hemisphere Convention
128
Experimental Populations
131
102 Experimental Population Establishment
132
1021 Geographic Separation
133
1022 Essential versus Nonessential Experimental Populations
135
10222 Section 7 Consultation
136
Citizen Suits Standing and Procedure
139
113 60Day Notice Requirement
140
114 APA Review as an Alternative to an ESA Citizen Suit
143
115 Standing
144
1151 Article III Standing
145
Causation
147
Redressability
148
1152 Prudential Standing
149
116 Miscellaneous
150
Acronym List
151
Frequently Asked Questions
153
Key Cases
167
Glossary
175
Bibliography
189
Index
193
Copyright

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