Essential Hypertension as Adaptation to Excess Gravitational Stress: Integrating Concept for Complete Prevention

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Nova Publishers, 2005 - Medical - 70 pages
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Spaceflight studies have demonstrated that adaptation to gravitational stress after prolonged microgravity includes sympathetic activation, water retention, and arterial pressure increase, i.e. a process very similar to development of essential hypertension, which from this perspective looks like an advanced stage of that adaptation with sympathetic hyperactivity, vasoconstriction, volume overload, and arterial hypertension in case of some further increase in gravitational stress. This book contains theoretical analysis of human cardiovascular function in real conditions of Earth gravitational field leading to the scientifically sound hypothesis of essential hypertension as advanced stage of natural adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to abnormally increased gravitational stress associated with modern 'sitting' lifestyle. Also clinical and experimental data are presented supporting this hypothesis according to comprehensive literature search. In upright position gravitation shifts blood downwards emptying upper body and reducing blood supply to the brain. Passively filling heart cannot pump blood out of the lower into the upper body. Compensation is provided through lower body vasoconstriction and circulating volume increase. The gravitational stress (GS) in the cardiovascular system in an upright position may be defined as amount of work necessary to return the blood upward and maintain adequate upper-body circulation calculated as the product of the gravitational potential (Ugr=g*h) and the mass of blood shifted by gravitation: GS=U*Mshift. In a complex vascular network, this blood shift is actually a function of time, estimated in a first approximation as Mshift(t)=(Ugr*t)/Rd (Rd: the resistance to downward blood flow) so that gravitational stress is proportional to the time spent upright GS=U*Mshift(t)=(Ugr2*t)/Rd=(g2*h2*t)/Rd. From this analysis typical for modern life regular, prolonged sitting should cause a significant increase in gravitational stress in the cardiovascular system, requiring advanced antigravitational response with sympathetic hyperactivity, vasoconstriction, volume overload, and arterial hypertension. The hypertensive effect of prolonged sitting has been directly demonstrated in several clinical studies. Numerous population studies demonstrated higher prevalence of hypertension for occupations with predominantly sitting posture during worktime. Thus, essential hypertension in scientifically sound way is explained as adaptation to increased gravitational stress resulted from modern "sitting" lifestyle. This gravitational hypothesis of essential hypertension fully integrates two existed major concepts of sympathetic hyperactivity and abnormal sodium reabsorption as complementary mechanisms of antigravitational response but contrary to them offers a way to complete healing of the disease through elimination of the primary factor of abnormal gravitational stress.
 

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Contents

Currently Available Antihypertensive Treatment Cannot Solve the Hypertension Problem
1
Quadrupedal Humans or Why Cardiovascular Researchers Have Never Had a Chance to Find a Primary Cause of Essential Hypertension
5
Space Flight Studies Discovering Stressful Effect of Earths Gravitation on Human Cardiovascular System
7
Basics of Physical Theory of Gravitation
9
Cardiovascular System in Gravitational Field
13
Antigravitational Response of the Cardiovascular System
17
Concept of Gravitational Stress Application of Gravitational Physics to the Human Cardiovascular Physiology
27
Giraffe An Adequate Model of Human Cardiovascular System
31
Essential Hypertension as an Adaptation of the Cardiovascular System to THE Sitting Lifestyle
41
Natural Course of Essential Hypertension or Development of Structural Adaptation TO EXCESSIVE GRAVITATIONAL STRESS
43
Gravitation as a Reason for Seasonal Variations of Blood Pressure Level
47
Inheritance of Hypertension
49
Meaning of Systolic and Diastolic Arterial Pressure from the Standpoint of Essential Hypertension as Advanced Compensatory Response to Increased...
53
Etiological Treatment and Prevention of Essential Hypertension as a Consequence of Excessive Gravitational Stress
57
Integrating Existing Concepts
61
References
63

Hypertension as an Advanced Stage of Antigravitational Response
33
Natural Mechanism of Defense Against Gravitational Stress
37
Prolonged Sitting The Best Way to Increase Gravitational Stress in the Cardiovascular System
39

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Page ix - Hypertension was listed as a primary or contributing cause of death in about 251,000 of over 2,400,000 US deaths in 2000.
Page vii - Space flight studies have demonstrated that adaptation to gravitational stress after prolonged microgravity includes sympathetic activation, water retention, and arterial pressure increase, ie, a...

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