Early Twentieth-century Islamic Architecture in Cairo
The first half of the twentieth century witnessed a reaction in Cairo against the occidentalizing architectural trends which had prevailed in the nineteenth century and interrupted the natural evolution of Islamic architecture. This new study seeks to define the different trends of the Islamic Revival period and discuss their motivation, progress, and achievements.
After a survey of the stylistic evolution and foreign influences in Cairene architecture until the end of the eighteenth century and a brief account of the nineteenth-century background to the Islamic Revival period, the author discusses the impact of architectural education, nationalism, and parallel styles on Islamic Revival architecture. Then, through the examples of a number of Cairo facades, he proposes for the first time a definition of five recognizable Islamic Revival styles: Neo-Islamic Revival, Modernized Islamic, Eclectic, Twentieth-Century Islamic, and Baroque Islamic (Heliopolis).
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THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
ISLAMIC REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE
TwentiethCentury Islamic Style
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accentuate al-'Imara al-Hikma al-Musawwar American University Arabic Music architects Awqaf Awqaf Ministry Building balustrade Behrens-Abouseif block pl Building pl Cairene architecture Cairo University cartouche central chamfered Circassian corbels corner tower crowned with three Date of construction decorative elements dome doorway eave Egypt Egyptian elongated engaged columns entrance portal European facade pl Fatimid flanking flat lintel gallery Heliopolis horizontal Islamic Architecture Islamic Cairene Islamic Revival Islamic style keel-arched Khedive Khedive Isma'il lintel lower level lower window Madrasa main facade Mamluk architecture Misr module molding Mosque Muhammad Mustafa Fahmi ogee arch Ottoman pattern pierced geometric balustrade pishtaq Plates pointed horseshoe pointed-arched window projecting balconies protuberant boss Qalawun rear facade recess pl recessed panels rectangular recess rectangular windows Revival style set of windows Sharaabi southern facade spandrels stalactites pl three tiers tiers of stalactites topped tower pl trabeated windows traditional trefoil crenellations triangular University in Cairo vegetal stucco motifs vertical Volait voussoirs