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PRINCIPLES OF EARMARKING
SELECTED EXAMPLES OF WORLD BANK EXPERIENCE WITH EARMARKING
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
addition allocation of resources appropriate level automatic balanced budget beneficiaries benefit principle benefit taxation Buchanan budgetary central government revenues Colombia's earmarking constant returns cost recovery criteria December decisions Developing Countries Earmarked expenditures earmarked funds Earmarked Sources Earmarked Taxes earmarking appears EBFs efficiency Evaluation example expenditure programs export externalities factors of production fuel taxes fund financing Ghana goods/services government activity government expenditures highway expenditures IBRD income income redistribution Intergovernmental Finance investment levels of government long-run average costs long-run marginal cost MacMillan and Company Macroeconomic major McCleary monies Operations Evaluation Department optimal output payroll taxes Policy PPR Working Paper practice price/tax arrangements principle of taxation priority projects public enterprises Public Expenditures Public Finance public sector R.A. Musgrave R.M. Bird Research Working Paper returns to scale revenue sharing social security social welfare objectives specific taxes Statistics November tax/price taxpayers Theory of Public Toll Roads valorization tax voters World Bank