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The Extractive Industries
Iron and Steel
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Africa alloys aluminum areas Australia automobile basic oxygen process beneﬁt beryllium blast furnace Bureau of Mines Canada cartel chemical Chile chromium competition consumers consumption copper cost countries demands depletion allowance deposits dollars earth economic electric energy example exploration export extractive industries ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂow foreign fuel gasoline gemstones gold import income increase inﬂation inﬂuence investment iron and steel japan labor large amounts laterites Libya manganese manufacture metals million molybdenum nations natural gas needed nickel Niobium obtained oil companies oil ﬁelds operations ounces percentage petroleum pipeline plants platinum political problems production proﬁt proﬁtable raw materials recent reﬁneries reﬁning reserves result risk capital rock Russia salt scrap short tons shortages signiﬁcance silver soil sources South Africa standard of living substitutes sulfur supplies taxes thorium titanium trade transportation tungsten underground United States Bureau uranium vanadium zinc