East Asian Labor Markets and the Economic Crisis: Impacts, Responses & Lessons
Gordon Betcherman, Rizwanul Islam
World Bank Publications, 2001 - Political Science - 492 pages
The East Asian crisis has had serious consequences for workers throughout the region. Unemployment has risen, earnings have fallen, and working conditions have been endangered. The resulting poverty, declines in living standards, and social tension have threatened the gains achieved during the preceding 2 decades of growth. They have also raised difficult questions about the development track in East and SE Asia and the social protection it has afforded. Over 2 years after the crisis started, there is evidence of macroeconomic stabilization and recovery in the region. However, for millions of workers in East Asia, social and economic hardship continues. For governments, important challenges remain not only to alleviate the hardship but also to build a sustainable path toward future prosperity. In 1998, the World Bank and the International Labor Organization (ILO) initiated a project on labor markets and the East Asian crisis. This was 1 element in the larger collaboration between these 2 institutions to support the region in responding to the social dimensions of the crisis. The labor market project covered the 5 most affected countries-Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand-and was designed to stimulate analysis and policy dialog within the context of international experience. This volume includes papers from a 3-day workshop (Tokyo, October 1999) convened to further the dialog regarding international experience and best practice in labor policy. Part 1 features reports prepared by national experts. Each report begins with an empirical overview of recent labor market trends in the country and then reviews current policies in employment creation and maintenance, income support for unemployed workers, employment services, and vocational education and training. Part 2 examines the international experience and applies it to the Asian context.
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active labor market adjustment agencies agricultural Asia Asian financial crisis assistance benefits costs countries deadweight losses decline economic crisis effects employed employers employment policy enterprises evaluations exports financial crisis firms formal sector funds groups growth households impact implemented improve income increase Indonesia industrial informal sector initiatives International Labour Organization job creation job search job seekers Korea Labor Force Survey labor market information labor market policies labor market programs layoffs loans macroeconomic Malaysia manufacturing ment million Ministry of Labor National nomic OECD percent pesos Philippines placement ployment private sector productivity Public Employment Service region retraining retrenched workers scheme self-employment severance pay skills SMEs social dialogue social safety net targeting Thai Thailand tion trade unions training programs tripartite underemployment unem unemployed workers unemployment insurance unemployment rate vocational education vocational training women World Bank
Page 491 - At whatever level of the organization in the Japanese factory, the worker commits himself on entrance to the company for the remainder of his working career. The company will not discharge him even temporarily except in the most extreme circumstances. He will not quit the company for industrial employment elsewhere.
Page 377 - Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe vs. North America.
Page 79 - ... one month's pay for each year of service up to the twentysixth year, and half a month's pay for each year of service thereafter.
Page 95 - Pritchett. 1999. Social Impact of the Indonesian Crisis: New Data and Policy Implication. Social Monitoring and Early Response Unit (SMERU), Jakarta. Pradhan, M., A. Suryahadi, S. Sumarto and L. Pritchett. 2000. Measurement of Poverty in Indonesia: 1996, 1999 and Beyond. SMERU Working Paper.
Page 177 - ... feature of the light-independent phase of growth mentioned above. The over-all growth process of the algae is accomplished by the repetition of the mutual change between these two kinds of cells, and it may be expressed most simply by the following formulae : * This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and the Mainichi Shimbun, Inc. A part of the theory described in this paper was worked out by the senior author during...
Page 69 - ... assistance of the multilateral development banks - to establish a process for assessing how programs will affect various segments of society as a means of ensuring minimal disruptions. In regard to the recent tragedy in East Timor, the United States moved quickly and successfully to urge the management of the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to make clear that they were not prepared, under the circumstances, to support further major disbursements...
Page 147 - Total number of females economically active as a percentage of total number of females in the working age population. •estimates Employment Employment During 1960s Before independence, the Malaysian economy was mainly based on the primary sector.
Page 212 - President shall in coordination with the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and the Department of...
Page 44 - ... of heightened crisis - this happened four times. The economy is currently going through its worst period of financial instability, aggravated by political uncertainty. The progress achieved during the 33 years to 1996 has often been highlighted by the reduction in poverty in this populous country. The percentage of the population living below the poverty line declined from a high of 60 per cent in 1960 to under 10 per cent in 1996 (see Nasution, 1998): this increased significantly in 1998 as...