## Easy Mathematics for BiologistsBecause elementary mathematics is vital to be able to properly design biological experiments and interpret their results. As a student of the life sciences you will only make your life harder by ignoring mathematics entirely. Equally, you do not want to spend your time struggling with complex mathematics that you will never use. This book is the perfect answer to your problems. Inside, it explains the necessary mathematics in easy-to-follow steps, introducing the basics and showing you how to apply these to biological situations. Easy Mathematics for Biologists covers the basic mathematical ideas of fractions, decimals and percentages, through ratio and proportion, exponents and logarithms, to straight line graphs, graphs that are not straight lines, and their transformation. Direct application of each of these leads to a clear understanding of biological calculations such as those involving concentrations and dilutions, changing units, pH, and linear and non-linear rates of reaction. Each chapter contains worked examples, and is followed by numerous problems, both pure and applied, that can be worked through in your own time. Answers to these can be found at the back. |

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### Contents

1 INTRODUCTION | 1 |

FRACTIONS DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES | 3 |

22 FRACTIONS | 4 |

23 DECIMALS | 6 |

24 PERCENTAGES | 8 |

25 PROBLEMS | 10 |

AMOUNTS VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS | 13 |

32 MOLARITY | 16 |

52 EVALUATING EXPRESSIONS | 43 |

53 PROBLEMS | 45 |

6 LOGARITHMS | 49 |

62 MANIPULATING LOGS | 51 |

63 PROBLEMS | 56 |

CALIBRATION CURVES AND LINEAR RATES OF CHANGE | 59 |

72 EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES | 62 |

73 EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES AND STRAIGHTLINE GRAPHS IN PRACTICE | 66 |

33 DILUTIONS | 18 |

34 CONCENTRATION VOLUME AND AMOUNT | 20 |

35 CONCENTRATIONS AND DILUTIONS IN PRACTICE | 23 |

36 PROBLEMS | 25 |

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION CONVERSION OF UNITS AND MORE ON CONCENTRATIONS | 29 |

CHANGING THE UNITS | 33 |

44 PROBLEMS | 35 |

5 SOLVING EQUATIONS AND EVALUATING EXPRESSIONS | 39 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorbance acid added amount answers antilog base Calculate called Chapter concentration constant containing convert correct covered curve Data for Question decimal point denominator determine dilution divided enzyme equals equation ethanol Example experiment exponent exponential expressed factors final volume fraction given gives glucose gradient Graph increase intercept length litre logarithm marked mass mathematics means measured metre minutes ml water mol/l molar mole move multiply non-zero Note obtained original percentage pipette plotted positive possible Prefixes problems proportional pure rate of change rate of reaction ratio reading relationship represented rule sample scientific notation shows sides Solve stock solution straight line substitute suggest Table temperature transformation tube understand units usually variable voles volume weight whole number write written