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PRUNING TREES SHRUBS AND VINES
PRUNING FOR FRUITS AND BERRIES
apical dominance apple arborist Beautyberries berries blade bloom on old branch collar bushes canes by one-third central-leader cherries climbing conifers crossing and rubbing cultivars Deadhead deadwood deciduous early spring early summer encourage branching Espalier evergreens Formal hedges Forsythia fruit trees garden grafted ground grown Guide to Pruning hard pruning head back heading cuts healthy hybrid teas immediately after flowering inches keep late spring late winter light and air limb loppers mock oranges modified central leader natural shape old canes old wood older wood oldest canes oldest stems outward-facing bud pinch plant produce prun pruning and training pruning cuts PRUNING FRUITS pruning in late pruning saw pruning shears Rambling Roses rejuvenation removing dead repeat-blooming root suckers rootstock rubbing branches scaffold branches secondary branches shrub roses side shoots species spring or early spurs thinning cuts tree's trunk twiggy twiggy growth vigorous vines Weigela winter or early wound young tree