Ecological Models and Data in REcological Models and Data in R is the first truly practical introduction to modern statistical methods for ecology. In stepbystep detail, the book teaches ecology graduate students and researchers everything they need to know in order to use maximum likelihood, informationtheoretic, and Bayesian techniques to analyze their own data using the programming language R. Drawing on extensive experience teaching these techniques to graduate students in ecology, Benjamin Bolker shows how to choose among and construct statistical models for data, estimate their parameters and confidence limits, and interpret the results. The book also covers statistical frameworks, the philosophy of statistical modeling, and critical mathematical functions and probability distributions. It requires no programming backgroundonly basic calculus and statistics.

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Contents
1 Introduction and Background  1 
2 Exploratory Data Analysis and Graphics  29 
3 Deterministic Functions for Ecological Modeling  72 
4 Probability and Stochastic Distributions for Ecological Modeling  103 
5 Stochastic Simulation and Power Analysis  147 
6 Likelihood and All That  169 
7 Optimization and All That  222 
8 Likelihood Examples  263 
10 Modeling Variance  316 
11 Dynamic Models  337 
12 Afterword  362 
Appendix Algebra and Calculus Basics  363 
369  
383  
389  
9 Standard Statistics Revisited  298 