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The host and parasite as a system
Strains of parasite and host
11 other sections not shown
adults amongst animals antibodies antigens appears asexual reproduction behaviour birds breeding cercariae cestode changes cycle definitive host density depends digenean dispersal distribution Dogiel dose ecological ectoparasites effect egg production Eimeria equilibrium Experimental factors Fasciola hepatica feedback controls feeding fish habitat haemocoel Haemonchus contortus hatch heavy infections host and parasite host population host responses host-parasite systems Hymenolepis diminuta immune response incidence increase individual infection levels infective larvae ingested initial infection intensity of infection intermediate host intestine larvae laticeps level of infection mammals mansoni maturation mice microfilariae migration miracidia monkeys monogenean mortality narrow specificity natural nematode number of parasites numbers occur oocysts overdispersion parasite burden parasite fauna parasite infection parasite numbers parasite population Parasitology Plasmodium plerocercoids probability of infection protozoans rats re-infection reduced regulation relationship resistance schistosomes seasonal sheep snails stability stage sticklebacks strain survive susceptible Table tapeworm temperature transmission trypanosomes vector whilst worms