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THE STUDY AREA
Map of Wisconsin showing location of stands studied
41 other sections not shown
abundance Acadian flycatcher Acer average avian Betula biome bird communities bird distribution bird populations bird species black-capped chickadee Blue jay blue-gray gnatcatcher breeding birds canopy density Carya Catbird census area cerulean warbler climax common continuum interval continuum of stands Cowbird crested flycatcher cuckoo Dane dense determined Downy woodpecker ecological factors fairly Fawver fixed count forest floor Frax habitat habitat distribution habitat preference habitat selection importance values Indigo bunting intermediate stands Kendeigh least flycatcher maple maple-beech mature mesic stands nest sites nesters observations occur ovenbird peak phytosociological present study quantitative red-eyed vireo redstart relative density rose-breasted grosbeak sample count method saplings Saunders scarlet tanager SD IV SD series of stands shows shrub layer similar Smoky Mountains spot-map study area suggests sum of frequencies Table Towhee Trautman trend Tufted titmouse Ulmus understory upland vegetational gradient vegetational series Wood pewee wood thrush woodlands woodp xeric xeric woods Yellow-throated vireo