Ecology for Environmental Professionals
If, as has been asserted, everything in nature is connected to everything else, it is a lesson yet to be reflected among environmental professions, especially those serving law and policy. Nowhere is the lack of integration more apparent than in the incorporation of sound ecological principles. Yet, comprehension of these principles is a prerequisite to establishing effective environmental programs, whether local or global. Ecology and environmental sciences range from cosmology to determining toxic effects in a biological system. In short, ecology is served by, and is itself a manifestation of, all the natural sciences. Ecology is further manifested in the social sciences, directly and indirectly. In this book, ecology and environmental sciences are presented to environmental professionals in terms relevant to all their endeavors. Today's ecologies emerge from the venerable scientific endeavor. Upon placing ecology in the hierarchy of natural sciences, this volume centers on the wealth of dimensions in which ecology is expressed. Extending beyond the three spatial dimensions and that of time, ecology enters those of holistic and reductionist vantages, the last reflected in abiotic and biotic detail. Dimensions serving environmental professions include the experimental, those arising from interrelationships with adaptation and evolution, and that of human ecology. Finally, there is the intellectual dimension: Ecology as one thread in the contemporary cultural tapestry into which environmental policy and law are being woven. Scrupulously avoiding superimposition of political stance, this unique volume serves anyone lacking scientific preparation who would take a stance, professional or personal.
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Science Scientists and Scientific Method
The Scope of Ecology and Its Roles
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abiotic actually adaptation alterations amino acids animals anthropogenic aquatic assimilation associated atmosphere atoms autotrophic bacteria behavior Big Bang biochemical biogeochemical cycle biological system biomass biosphere biota biotic carbon dioxide cells cellular chapter characteristic chemical chemistry chromosomes climate climax community complex components deep ecology depends distribution diversity Earth ecological ecologist ecosystem effects electrons elements energy flow environment environmental professional essential evolution evolutionary extinction Gaia gene genetic geological global habitats herbivores heterotrophic homeostasis Homo sapiens sapiens human hydrogen hydrosphere individual organism inorganic Integrative Levels interactions level of organization lithosphere living major matter mediated metabolic million molecular molecules niche nitrogen nutrients occur Odum oxidation oxygen patterns perturbation phenomena photosynthesis physical planetary plants pollution population predict processes proteins range reactions relationships relatively represent respiration result sapiens scientific scientists species strategy structure and function supra note taxons temperature tolerance toxic trophic levels unique