Ecology of Shallow Lakes

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 1, 2004 - Science - 357 pages
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Ecology of Shallow Lakes brings together current understanding of the mechanisms that drive the diametrically opposite states of water clarity, shown by the cover paintings, found in many shallow lakes and ponds. It gives an outline of the knowledge gained from field observations, experimental work, and restoration studies, linked by a solid theoretical framework.

The book focuses on shallow lakes, but the lucid treatment of plankton dynamics, resuspension, light climate and the role of vegetation is relevant to a much wider range of aquatic systems. The models that are used remain simple and most analyses are graphical rather than algebraic. The text will therefore appeal to students, scientists and policy makers in the field of ecology, fisheries, pollution studies and water management, and also to theoreticans who will benefit from the many real-world examples of topics such as predation and competition theory, bifurcation analysis and catastrophe theory. Perhaps most importantly, the book is a remarkable example of how large field experiments and simple models can catalyze our insight into complex ecosystems.

Marten Scheffer wrote this book while at the Institute of Inland Water Management and Waste Treatment, RIZA, Lelystad, The Netherlands. He is currently at the Department of Water Quality Management and Aquatic Ecology of the Wageningen Agricultural University.

Reviews
`Much rarer are textbooks that so succinctly sum up the state-of-the-art knowledge about a subject that they become instant `bibles'. This book is one of these. It is probably one of the best biological textbooks I have read. Scheffer masterfully pulls all this information together under one cover and presents a coherent account, which will serve as a benchmark for the subject. The reader will not gain any great insight into the breeding biology of pike from this book, nor learn much about dragonflies or newts. They will, however, come to understand the essential nature of shallow lakes or, as the author puts it, `how shallow lakes work'. Overall, this book will be of great interest to practical and theoretical ecologists, students and managers in all fields of biology. All freshwater ecologists should certainly read it.'
Simon Harrison in Journal of Ecology, 86

`The book by Scheffer can be seen as a milestone in the recognition of shallow lakes as a research topic in its own right. Scheffer uses three approaches concurrently to unravel the functioning of shallow lakes: 1) statistical analysis of large datasets from a variety of lakes; 2) simple abstract models made up of a few non-linear ordinary differential equations, which he calls `mini-models'; and 3) logical reasoning based on a mixture of results from fieldwork, experiments and models. What is new is that Scheffer links mathematics very nicely with what one feels is a correct description of the functioning of a shallow lake. Employing logical reasoning, Scheffer combines all these sources of knowledge into a general, coherent picture of the functioning of a shallow lake.'
Wolf Mooij in Aquatic Ecology, 32

 

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Contents

The story of some shallow lakes
1
Alderfen Broad
4
12 Storm Effects
5
Lake Ellesmere
6
Rice Lake
7
14 Fish stock management
8
Linford lakes
9
15 Miscellaneous cases
13
The seasonal cycle of planktivory
172
Modelling seasonality of plankton
174
Implications of seasons for equilibria and cycles
177
Behaviour of the seasonal plankton model
181
But many more mechanisms operate in the field
184
44 The benthic connection
190
Competition for benthic food
191
Topdown control of snails and periphyton
193

Lagoon of the Islands
14
Lake Christina
15
Tomahawk Lagoon
18
The abiotic environment
20
Light attenuation with depth
21
Secchidepth
23
Nephelometric turbidity
25
Finding the causes of turbidity
26
Pragmatic solutions to estimate light attenuation
30
22 Sedimentation and resuspension
31
When and where wave resuspension occurs
33
Wave resuspension in relation to lake size and depth
36
Lake specific empirical models
41
Sediment resuspension by fish
44
The effect of vegetation on sedimentation and resuspension
47
23 Nutrient dynamics
49
The availability of phosphorus
50
Sediment as a phosphorus buffer
52
The mechanisms that govern sediment phosphorus release
56
Nitrogen dynamics
61
Carbon as a limiting nutrient
64
The effect of animals on nutrient dynamics
70
Phytoplankton
76
The logistic equation as a model of algal growth
79
Losses due to sinking and flushing
81
Lake depth and light limitation
85
The combined effects of nutrients and light
89
Phytoplankton control by grazers
96
Allelopathic effects
97
32 Competition between algae and cyanobacteria
99
Empirical relationships with nutrients and turbidity
101
Hysteresis as an implication
105
Competition as an explanation
107
Other mechanisms involved
114
33 Multispecies competition and succession
116
Causes of nonequilibrium dynamics
117
Reasons to expect chaotic dynamics
118
Trophic cascades
122
41 Topdown control of phytoplankton
124
The special position of Daphnia
127
A minimal plankton model
129
The paradox of enrichment
134
Stabilizing mechanisms
137
Implications of spatial heterogeneity
138
42 The effect of planktivorous fish
146
The classical consumption catastrophe
148
A minimal model of planktivory
152
Implications of oscillations
156
An inventory of theoretical possibilities
158
43 Seasonal dynamics of plankton and fish
162
The spring clearwater phase
163
Other seasonal scenarios
166
Patterns across many lakes
168
45 Piscivores
197
How far down does the cascade go?
200
Cannibalism and competition
201
46 General patterns
203
costs and consequences
205
Shifts in foodweb structure with enrichment
206
Vegetation
210
51 Implications of vegetation for the animal community
213
Invertebrates
214
Zooplankton
216
Fish
222
Birds
224
52 Effect of vegetation on turbidity
225
Seasonal dynamics
229
Case studies revealing mechanisms
233
Are there general patterns?
237
Brackish lakes as an exception
241
53 The regulation of vegetation abundances
245
Periphyton
250
Temperature
253
Wave action
254
Birds
256
Fish
257
54 Vegetation and phytoplankton dominance as alternative equilibria
258
A simple graphical model
260
The vegetationturbidity interaction elaborated
263
Hysteresis as an implication
266
A minimal mathematical model
269
Predictions from a mechanistic vegetation model
273
Implications of seasonality
279
Other mechanisms influencing the hysteresis
281
Hallmarks of hysteresis
284
A review of evidence from the field
286
Managing the ecosystem
289
Eutrophication and restoration
291
Connected and heterogeneous lakes
293
62 Nutrient management
294
Different approaches to reduce nutrients
296
Biomanipulation as a shock therapy
297
Requirements for success
298
64 Hydrological adjustments
300
Drawdown
301
Flushing
302
65 Other measures
303
Enclosures and artificial refuges
304
66 Selecting restorations measures
306
The limits of knowledge
308
The necessity of mechanistic insight
310
Prospect
312
References
314
Lake index
344
Subject index
346
Copyright

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 318 - DeAngelis, DL and Rose, KA (1992) Which individual-based approach is most appropriate for a given problem? in DL DeAngelis and LJ Gross (eds.) Individual-based Models and Approaches in Ecology, Chapman and Hall, New York, pp.
Page 321 - Grimm, MP, 1989. Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters.
Page 320 - Interactions between the rates of production of a freshwater macrophyte and phytoplankton in a pond.
Page 317 - WT (1985) Relations between water transparency and maximum depth of macrophyte colonization in lakes.
Page 334 - U. Sommer, 1993. Intermediate disturbance in the ecology of phytoplankton and the maintenance of species diversity a synthesis. Hydrobiologia 249: 183-188.
Page 340 - Growth enhancement of the macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum in the presence of the snail Planorbis planorbis the effect of grazing and chemical conditioning.
Page 321 - Decline in total phosphorus in the surface waters of lakes during summer stratification, and its relationship to size distribution of particles and sedimentation 1330-1337 Gu, В., О.М.

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About the author (2004)

Marten Scheffer is professor of environmental sciences at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. He is the author of "Ecology of Shallow Lakes.

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