Ecology of natural underburning in the Blue Mountains of Oregon
Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 1977 - Nature - 11 pages
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50 percent Abies grandis animal units Arnica Arnica cordifolia balsam woollyweed basal area Bearberry Bitterbrush Blue Mountains Ceanothus climax conflagration fire Conifer conifer/pinegrass community type conifer/pinegrass plant community Control of underburning Crown cover averages developed under periodic Dominant trees dominated by ponderosa Eastern Oregon Ecology effect on ground elk sedge fir and Douglas-fir fire hazard fire scar Forest Service full sunlight grass production ground vegetation grow Heartleaf arnica ignites the pitch inch diameter growth inches DBH land manager lightning strikes livestock lnterpretation lodgepole pine manganese meter board mixed conifer/pinegrass community mixed conifer/pinegrass plant Montane Forest normal stand development Norway spruce periodic burning periodic underburning pinegrass and elk Pinus ponderosa plant community type podzol ponderosa pine litter pounds per acre Pseudotsuga menziesii Range condition rangeland rings per inch seedlings Shrubs are absent Snowberry soil profile species spruce stagnation stocking density tree crown cover UNDERBURNlNG EFFECT vetch western larch white fir wildfire