Economic Perspectives on Affirmative Action
The three scholarly articles that make up this book examine affirmative action in economic terms, measuring and discussing the economic cost of racial discrimination in employment and the economic cost of equal opportunity enacted to combat discrimination and its effects. The short article by Andrew Brimmer, an economist who was the first black governor of the Federal Reserve Board, calculates the financial cost to the nation of racial discrimination in employment, education, and training. Cecilia Conrad's article surveys an array of experts and concludes that the direct financial costs to government and private industry of maintaining affirmative action policies is quite small; she also concludes that the popular perception of a productivity loss caused by affirmative action has little basis in demonstrable fact. Finally, Lee Badgett and Heidi Hartmann examine the many studies that have been done to assess the effectiveness of affirmative action policies in increasing employment and wage opportunities for both women and African Americans; they conclude that such policies have had measurable effects, though they have often been slight.
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affirmative action plan affirmative action policies affirmative action programs African Americans American analysis Andrew Brimmer Beller billion black employment black women black workers Brimelow and Spencer Brimmer changes Civil Rights Act compliance reviews Conclusion contract compliance program Cost of Discrimination costs of affirmative discrimination against blacks earnings Economic Cost EEOC effect of Title employers employment discrimination employment of black equal employment opportunity estimate evidence Executive Order 11246 Federal Contract Compliance firm's gains Glenn Loury goals and timetables groups hiring Impact of Affirmative increase industry James Heckman Joint Center Journal of Human Labor Economics labor force labor market less qualified levels measure minority workers money income negative effects noncontractors occupational status OFCCP Orley Ashenfelter period Policy Variable positive effect productivity quotas racial discrimination regression analysis result reverse discrimination share Shulman significant statistical studies tests wages and employment Washington white women workforce