Economic disparity in rural Myanmar: transformation under market liberalization
"Market liberalization in Myanmar began in 1988 and had some unexpected consequences. One was an explosion in the production of green gram, an export crop that became extremely popular in the 1990s. Under the new regulations, socialist policies that limited economic disparities within the rural population were removed, and farmers began to operate in a context with little government control over prices and marketing, even though the sector was not fully deregulated. Market liberalization in the new export-oriented pulse industry produced increasing economic disparities among different classes in rural Myanmar, largely determined by access to land, capital and credit. Traders benefited the most, and landless laborers the least." "Ikuko Okamoto explores these issues through a detailed case study of Thongwa Township, a place east of Yangon (Rangoon) in the major green gram producing region in the country, showing that rural people respond quickly to policy changes and make maximum use of new opportunities, even in a country where such opportunities have been very limited. Her work offers important insights into the transition from a socialist to a market-based economy, and local-level responses to market incentives. It also shows that the success or failure of new crops in a peasant economy largely depends on whether the crop is compatible with the initial resource endowment."--BOOK JACKET.
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Policies and Performance of Myanmar Agriculture in
Development of Green Gram Producing Area
Farmers Adoption of Green Gram and Its Determining
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advance payment advance wages agricultural laborers amount average Ayeyarwaddy Bago Division black gram Burmese Burmese Chinese capital cash cent per month Consumption cost credit constraints crop daily labor diesel oil double-cropping dry season economic disparity expansion of green export companies factor farm household survey Figure Fujita green gram cultivation green gram harvesting green gram income green gram marketing green gram production green gram trading househo1 Informal Loans interest rates kyat per basket land Magwe market liberalization million kyat monsoon Myanma Agriculture Service Myanmar's economy Number of Samples Pigeon Pea plowing primary collectors procurement profits pulses purchasing depots relatively Revenue rhizobia rice rural Myanmar seasonal laborers share socialist period Source Sown Acres study villages summer paddy Table Takahashi 1992 Takahashi 2000 Thanlyin Thongwa Township tillage rights town wholesalers tractor rental Traders survey transactions village dummy Yangon Yangon Division