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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A POSITIVE
Chapter 2 Uncertainty and Influence
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ability activity actual utility agents allocation alter amount analysis Anthony Downs assumption attempt basis behavior benefit bureaucrats Charles Beard choice collective action conclusions consumer sovereignty consumers costs deci degree depends desire determine discount factor distribution of values economic effects election elite expected utility expenditures favorable finance firms gain governmental greater groups hence ideology imperfect information implies increase inequality influence production involved James Buchanan Joan Robinson large numbers less Mancur Olson mass Musgrave nomic non-voting influence normative optimal outcome Pareto optimality particular party perceived perfect competition political positive model possible potential preferences problem produce influence programs public decisions public purchasing public sector purchasing decisions rational reduce reflect regard relative price requires result self-interest shift situation society subsidized information sumers tax burdens tax institutions tax policies tax structure taxation tion tive uncertainty utility functions viduals visible vote maximization vote position voters