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Foreword Professor Khurshid Ahmad
The Moral Foundations of Economic Life
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Abd al-Malik Abu Bakr Abu Daud According advised al-Jazira Alexandria Allah allotted amount Arab Arabia Bahrayn Baladhuri Banu Basra Bayt al-Mal Bukh Byzantine Caliph Umar Caliph Uthman camels Chapter collections collectors concept conquered conquest dinar per head dinars dirhams distribution early economic Egypt exemption expenditure fighters fixed Ghanima give given governor Hadith Hajjaj historians Ibid income increase infaq Iraq Islam Jizya Kath Khalifa Kharaj Khaybar Khums Khurasan Kindi Kufa land land-tax large number later levy Madina million dirhams Misr moral Mu'awiya Muslims non-Muslims officers ownership payment pensions per-head period Persian persons poll-tax population pre-Islamic Prophet peace province Qur'an reported revenues revolt rulers Sa'd sadaqa Severus slaves spending suggest Syria Tabari treaty tribes Ubayda Umar's Umayyad Ushr verses wealth Ya'qubi Yazid Zakat Ziyad Zubayr