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The First Temple Period
Exile and Restoration
The Second Temple Period
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19th century agricultural Amsterdam areas arenda artisans Ashkenazi bankers became Benjamin of Tudela brokers capital centers Christian cities clothing commercial countries Court Jews cultural diamond Eastern Europe economic activity employed employment engaged England entrepreneurs Erez Israel established export fairs farmers farming firms Germany guilds Hebrew idem important income industry Isaac Israel Jewish banking Jewish community Jewish craftsmen Jewish economic Jewish immigrants Jewish merchants Jewish population Jewish traders Jewry Juden labor land lease leather Lithuania loans major manufacture Marranos medieval Middle Ages migration mintmasters modern moneylending Muslim number of Jewish number of Jews Ottoman Empire Pale of Settlement Palestine peasants peddlers peddling period Poland Poland-Lithuania Polish production prominent rabbis railroad responsa role Rothschild Russia Samuel Oppenheimer sector Sephardi Sephardi Jews slaves social society Spain sugar supply tailors talmudic tanners taverns textile tobacco towns trade Ukraine urban villages Western wine workers World