Ecotaxes on Polluting Inputs and Outputs
The use of taxes to put pressure on polluters has had mixed results internationally, according to this study of economic instruments (EIs) as a means for cleaning up environmental-hazards. The analysis identifies several key considerations in structuring effective ecotaxes, including trade-offs between environmental and other goals, the size of the tax base, distortions in prices, the possibility of phasing in the taxes, incentives for compliance, and the advisability of earmarking of funds for environmental protection. Industries in India covered in the discussion include makers of automobiles, coal, fertilizers, lead acid batteries, paper and pulp, pesticides, plastics, phosphate-based detergents, and rayon.
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List of Figures Tables and Annexures
About the Authors
Design and Implementation of Ecotaxes
Chlorine Use in Pulp and Paper
Phosphate Based Detergents
Chemical Pesticides and Biopesticides
16 per cent ash content battery manufacturers Beneficiation Cost biodegradable biofertilisers biopesticides Bioplastics bleaching capacity carbon carbon tax carry bags CENVAT cess chemical fertilisers chemical pesticides Chennai chlorine chlorine dioxide Coal Price coking coal consumers consumption CPCB crore damage detergents diesel diesel cars diesel vehicles ecotax effect environment environmental taxes estimated Euro IV eutrophication excise duty extended producer responsibility fertilisers fuel economy grades impact important incentive increase India industry inputs levy million tonnes MoEF nitrogen non-coking coal nutrients OECD OECD countries organised sector organochlorine organochlorine compounds output paper petrol phosphate plastic wastes polluter pays pollution control power plants price of ROM production programmes pulp recommended recycling reduce regulations revenue scrap batteries secondary lead smelters Source standards STPP Sweden Table tax rate technologies tonnes toxic two-wheelers unorganised vehicular pollution zeolite