Written in the language of education, not of research, this introduction to educational research methods focuses on research as a system of examining and analyzing educational outcomes -- and the many ways in which teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors can apply research findings to solving the day-to-day problems they face. It provides numerous examples taken from classroom teaching, counseling, administration, and other areas of education. Covers all of the traditional topics of educational research -- with a distinctive emphasis on the need for working educators to continue in the role of researchers while they teach. Provides thorough treatment of measurement essentials for those with little or no statistical background. Features a wealth of classroom examples, along with dozens of charts, tables, and graphs. The "Second Edition" features new chapters on qualitative methods and meta analysis, and interjects an overall qualitative "flavor" throughout.
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Measuring Outcome Variables
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ability abstract actually addition administered analysis of variance Anderson answer appropriate average behavior biased sample chance chapter characteristics child classroom conclusions confidence interval control group control variables correlation coefficient dependent variable described Diagram discussed educational research evaluate example experiment experimental group external extraneous factors Figure format grade guidelines hypothesis impact important improved indicate instructor instrument interaction internal validity intervening variable Journal mean measurement method moderator variables norm-referenced tests observed occur operational definition operationally defined outcome variable Pearson correlation coefficient performance person possible posttest pretest proactive inhibition problem pupils quasi-experimental design question questionnaire random assignment readers reading research design research prediction respondents result of Step Review Quiz scores selection self-concept setting specific SPSS statistical procedures statistical regression strategies Stratified sampling subjects Table teacher techniques theoretical research threats to internal treatment