Effect of Physicochemical Properties of Sorghum Starch and Endosperm on the Quality of a Traditional African Food
Physicochemical properties of starch and endosperm were characterized for several sorghumcultivars. A small scale laboratory method was developed for cooking to in acid and alkali media using 9.5 g sorghum flour. Testing procedures were established to characterize to properties. Then the effects of the physicochemical properties on the texture storage and color of to were evaluated. Alkali to (pH 8.8) was stickier and softer than acid to (pH 4.6) in all samples. Acid to was lighter in color than alkali to. Storage for 24 hr. at up to 35(DEGREES)C decreased the stickiness and softness of to from most sorghum varieties. The genetic property of the grain, the environment during growth and maturation and the pH of the cooking medium all interracted to determine textural and keeping properties of to. Thousand kernel weight, was not related to to textural properties. However kernel density and endosperm texture were significantly related to the texture of acid to. Flour particle size increased as the corneous portion of the kernel increased. Acid to from grains with corneous endosperms were firmer and less sticky than to from floury endosperms. However, endosperm texture and flour particle size were not related to texture of alkali to. Protein, starch and amylose content of the endosperm did not significantly relate to to texture. The enzyme susceptible starch in the flour was related to to texture (r = 0.68). Waxy sorghums make very soft and sticky to. Starch pasting and setback viscosities were significantly correlated with texture of acid to. The relationship between the amylograph cooking properties of flour and to texture was significantly due to differences in pH of the cooking media and parameters measured. Starch swelling power and solubility are not significantly related with to quality. However starch granule size affected the texture of stored alkali to significantly (r = 0.60).
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1980 IFQT sorghums acid and alkali Akingbala alkali td amylopectin amylose content bcde birefringence Cereal Cereal Chem color cooking properties correlated Crop defg Dobbs endosperm texture enzyme evaluated flour particles Flours From 1979 floury endosperm fresh acid fresh and stored gelatinization energy gelatinization temperature geometric mean glucose grain Greenwood 1975 Hyderabad hydrolysis ICRISAT isolated starch Kafir Keninke kernel Linear regression lysine Mali Malian sorghums mass median diameter mean milling yields Mothi nonsticky Nonwaxy Nonwaxy Nonwaxy nonwaxy starches Ouga Mkt-1 particle size index pasting temperature pasting viscosity Patcha Jonna pericarp polyphenols properties of sorghum properties of starch protein retrogradation Rooney Scheuring Schoch Segaolane significantly different sorghum starches sorghum varieties starch and endosperm starch granules starches from 1979 storage at 35°C stored alkali Swarna swelling power testa Texas A&M University waxy sorghum waxy starch White White White WxWxwx ZPop