Effective Inquiry for Innovative Engineering Design, Volume 10

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2004 - Business & Economics - 154 pages
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Designers think in a specific way that is both ubiquitous and unique, often referred to as "design thinking" or "design cognition". Effective Inquiry for Innovative Engineering Design presents empirical evidence for this claim. It demonstrates a unique attribute of design thinking by identifying and characterizing a class of questions called "Generative Design Questions". These questions are frequently asked by designers in dialog. Their use constitutes a fundamental cognitive mechanism in design thinking. Their discovery stems from another finding of the work: a conceptual duality between questions and decisions that is engraved deep within the design process.
This duality challenges a view that treats designing as decision making. Decisions form the tip of the iceberg; Questions keep it afloat:

-Can an effective decision making process be performed without having high quality information?
-Can high quality information be acquired and generated without performing an effective inquiry process?

The answer to both questions is no, and underscores the importance of our quest to better understand the role of inquiry in design.
Pragmatically, Effective Inquiry for Innovative Engineering Design presents a new design thinking model. It illustrates the effective transformation of design requirements into design concepts and those concepts into design decisions and specifications as a question-driven process. The ability to leverage this cycle in operating at the necessary level of conceptual abstraction throughout the design process is a defining quality of high performance innovative design teams.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 Why Study Question Asking?
2
12 Why Study Design Cognition?
4
13 Research Questions and Approach
5
Question Asking A Fundamental Dimension in Design thinking
11
21 Contemporary Topics in Design Research
12
22 The QuestionDecision Duality
18
23 Learning from Existing Taxonomies of Questions
25
The Pilot Experiment
83
Learning from the Pilot Experiments Good Questions and Discoveries
85
Discovery Making as another Internal Performance Metric
88
Characterization of a Good Question
91
64 The Augmented Hypotheses
93
Conducting the Redesigned Experiment Putting the Question Asking Aspect of Design Cognition under the Microscope
95
72 Data Analysis and Results
104
73 Revisiting the Hypotheses
126

Development of a Taxonomy that is Comprehensive of the Questions Asked while Designing
33
31 Context for the Observations on the Nature of Questions Asked While Designing
34
32 Definition of a Question
35
33 An Argument for the Search for the Possible and Its Characterization as Question Categories
36
34 Comparison of the Taxonomic Approaches
45
Hypothesis Generation in the Field Shadowing the Design Team
51
41 Grounded Principle for Hypotheses Generation
53
42 Context of the Preliminary Observations
54
43 Two Techniques for Capturing Design Activity in the Field and Generating Hypothesis
56
44 Findings of the Field Research
58
Designing the Intervention Differentiating Designing from Problem Solving
65
52 Addressing the Requirements
72
Synthesizing a Questioncentric Design Thinking Model
129
81 Question Asking as a Process
130
82 Question Asking as Creative Negotiation
131
83 Question Asking as a Mechanism for Managing Convergent and Divergent Thinking Modes
133
84 Implications of the Verified Hypotheses
134
85 A Questioncentric Design Thinking Model
135
86 Potential Applications of the Design Thinking Model
136
Appendix
139
References
147
Index
153
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Page 152 - ... Suchman, L. (1987). Plans and situated actions: the problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Tan, M. & Teh, R (Eds.). (1995). The global design studio: Proceedings ofCAAD Futures. Singapore: National University of Singapore. Tang, JC and L. Leifer. (1991). An observational methodology for studying group design activity. Research in engineering design 2: 209-219. Vangundy, AB (1988). Techniques of structured problem solving. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold....

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