Effects of fire on southern pine: observations and recommendations
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, 1986 - Nature - 14 pages
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abscission ambient air temperature ambient temperature backfires backing fire bark char bark thickness basal branch cambium burning conditions Byram Craighead crown consumption defo dormant season Dry Branch eastern white pine factors Fahnestock and Hare feet fire damage fire intensity flame foliage Forest Fire Laboratory fuel growth losses heat resistant inches d.b.h. increment loss insulating invariably result jack pine Johansen killed Kulman lethal liation line headfires live crown loblolly pines lodgepole pine longleaf pine lower stem Mann and Gunter McCulley missing rings Pederick percent crown scorch percent defoliation pine P_ ponderosa pine postfire preburn prescribed burning radial and height radial growth red pine Reifsnyder reported resource manager root mortality root systems Ryan sawflies season following fire shortleaf pine Southern Forest Fire southern pine species spotfire spring stem cambium sulted survival susceptible thicker tissue tree crown unburned control Wahlenberg Wyant xylem