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Is Environmental Design an Effective Deterrent?
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affects crime and/or avoiding parks beneﬁts Brantingham burglary car busting CEVE CON SB commit an offense Concealment and prospect concealment feature concems crime in parks crime prevention detection factors deterring crime efforts environmental design/management escape routes facilitates ﬁeld ﬁndings ﬁrst groups hiding hot spots identiﬁed impact important infomrants infonnants law enforcement law enforcement personnel likelihood linked Nasar neighborhood watch occur offender offers concealment park crime park features park managers park patrons park personnel park safety park users avoiding perceptions of safety perpetration personal offenses personal security Photo physical environment physical features planting potential victims rational choice theory reducing crime relationship between vegetation removal of vegetation remove vegetation SB SC SB SCVS CEVE SC VS CEVE scene seven phases speciﬁc stalk strategies suggests surveillance and prospect surveillance source target theory thick vegetation trees U.S. Forest Service understanding unsafe urban forestry urban parks urban vegetation Virginia Tech