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ENERGY SELFSUFFICIENCY A LOOK AT THE FUTURE
ENERGY USE PATTERNS IN THE METALLURGICAL
THE STEEL INDUSTRY
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acid air preheat aluminum annual approximately average blast furnace gas BTU Gas BTU/ton burner capacity carbon charge coal coke oven coke rate combustion air concentrate converter cooling copper cost cupola cycle direct reduction economic efficiency electric power energy consumption energy requirements equipment factors feed flame flash smelting flue fossil fuel fuel gas gases gasifier Harjavalta hydrogen sulfide increase injection input installed insulation low-Btu gas melting metallurgical mill million Btu natural gas nitrogen Noranda open hearth operation Outokumpu oxide oxygen pellets percent pickle pig iron plant preheat primary production projected pushrate Q-BOP ratio reactor refractory regenerators reheating furnaces savings scrap shown in Figure sinter slab slag smelter smelting soaking pits stack steam steel industry steelmaking sulfur dioxide sulfuric acid supply Table thermal total energy tuyeres unit utilization waste gas waste heat recovery WD/GI zinc