Einstein's Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity - Derived, Explained, and Appraised
Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectric effect and specific heat, his calculation of radiation fluctuation giving the first statement of wave-particle duality, his introduction of probability in the description of quantum radiative transitions, and finally the quantum statistics and Bose-Einstein condensation. Einstein's special theory of relativity gave us the famous E=mc▓ relation and the new kinematics leading to the idea of the 4-dimensional spacetime as the arena in which physical events take place. Einstein's geometric theory of gravity, general relativity, extends Newton's theory to time-dependent and strong gravitational fields. It laid the ground work for the study of black holes and cosmology. This is a physics book with material presented in the historical context. We do not stop at Einstein's discovery, but carry the discussion onto some of the later advances: Bell's theorem, quantum field theory, gauge theories and Kaluza-Klein unification in a spacetime with an extra spatial dimension. Accessibility of the material to a modern-day reader is the goal of our presentation. Although the book is written with primarily a physics readership in mind (it can also function as a textbook), enough pedagogical support material is provided that anyone with a solid background in introductory physics can, with some effort, understand a good part of this presentation.
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Einstein's Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity - Derived, Explained, and ...
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aether atomic basis vectors blackbody radiation Boltzmann’s Bose–Einstein Bose–Einstein condensation Bose–Einstein statistics bosons Brownian motion calculation Chapter Christoffel symbols coefficient components coordinate transformation cosmic cosmological constant covariant derivatives CPAEe curvature tensor curved spacetime discussed in Section Einstein electron emission energy density entropy equation of motion equipartition theorem factor flat fluctuation fluid force frequency gauge symmetry gauge theory geodesic geometric gravitational field inertial frames integral interaction invariant light speed lightcone Lorentz transformation mass Maxwell’s equations measurement metric tensor molecular molecules momentum Newton’s Newtonian observer obtained oscillator paper photon physics Planck’s distribution principle quantized quantum field theory quantum mechanics quantum theory quarks radiation energy relation relativistic result rotation scalar Schwarzschild ſ║ solute particles special relativity specific heat spherical spin statistical SuppMat Section surface temperature theorem thermal tion universe velocity viscosity volume wave wavefunction