El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation
S. George Philander
Academic Press, Dec 14, 1989 - Science - 293 pages
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation is by far the most striking phenomenon caused by the interplay of ocean and atmosphere. It can be explained neither in strictly oceanographic nor strictly meteorological terms. This volume provides a brief history of the subject, summarizes the oceanographic and meteorological observations and theories, and discusses the recent advances in computer modeling studies of the phenomenon.
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advection amplitude approximately changes Circulation Model coast coastal convective convergence zones Coriolis parameter eastern tropical Pacific eastward Ekman drift equator Equatorial Current equatorial jet Equatorial Undercurrent equatorially trapped equatorward excited Figure flow fluctuations flux frequency geostrophic group velocities Gulf of Guinea heat transport horizontal Indian Ocean inertia-gravity intense interactions interannual ITCZ Kelvin wave latitude latitudinal layer meridional monsoons motion Niņa Niņo episodes nonlinear North Equatorial Countercurrent northern northward ocean and atmosphere ocean basin ocean surface ocean-atmosphere oceanic response Pacific Ocean period Philander poleward pressure force radius of deformation rainfall region Rossby waves scale sea surface temperature seasonal cycle shallow-water shown in Fig simulated Somali Current South South Equatorial Current southeast trades Southern Oscillation speed surface currents surface temperature variations surface winds thermocline tion tropical Atlantic unstable upwelling variability velocity component vertical structure Walker Circulation warm surface waters westerly winds western equatorial westward winds windstress zonal currents