El hombre y el Estado

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Encuentro, Jul 1, 1983 - Philosophy - 220 pages
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Traducción de Juan Miguel Palacios. «El Estado no es la suprema encarnación de la Idea, como creía Hegel. No es una especie de superhombre colectivo. El Estado no es má que un órgano habilitado para hacer uso del poder y la coerción y compuesto de expertos o especialistas en el orden y el bienestar públicos; es un instrumento al servicio del hombre. Poner al hombre al servicio de este instrumento es una perversión política. La persona humana en cuanto individuo es para el cuerpo político, y el cuerpo político es para la persona humana en cuanto persona. Pero el hombre no es en modo alguno para el Estado. El Estado es para el hombre».
 

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Contents

NOTA DEL TRADUCTOR
9
PRÓLOGO
13
EL PUEBLO Y EL ESTADO
15
Comunidad y sociedad
16
La Nación
18
El Cuerpo político
23
El Estado
25
Crecimiento normal y proceso simultáneo de perversión
32
LOS DERECHOS DEL HOMBRE
83
La ley natural
90
Los derechos del hombre y la ley natural
101
Los derechos humanos en particular
109
LA CARTA DEMOCRÁTICA
115
Los herejes políticos
121
Problemas concernientes a la autoridad
131
Las minorías de choque proféticas
143

El pueblo
37
EL CONCEPTO DE SOBERANÍA
41
El príncipe soberano de Juan Bodino
43
El error original
46
Lo que significa la soberanía El Dios mortal de Hobbes
48
Ni el Cuerpo político ni el Estado son soberanos
51
Conclusiones
58
La racionalización técnica de la vida política
65
Los medios de control a disposición del pueblo
73
LA IGLESIA Y EL ESTADO
151
La aplicación de los principios inmutables
157
Algunas conclusiones prácticas
184
Capítulo VIL EL PROBLEMA DE LA UNIFICACIÓN
193
A dónde es apartada la presunta soberanía del Estado
199
Teoría plenamente política
206
Un consejo consultivo supranacional
216
Copyright

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About the author (1983)

T. S. Eliot once called Jacques Maritain "the most conspicuous figure and probably the most powerful force in contemporary philosophy." His wife and devoted intellectual companion, Raissa Maritain, was of Jewish descent but joined the Catholic church with him in 1906. Maritain studied under Henri Bergson but was dissatisfied with his teacher's philosophy, eventually finding certainty in the system of St. Thomas Aquinas. He lectured widely in Europe and in North and South America, and lived and taught in New York during World War II. Appointed French ambassador to the Vatican in 1945, he resigned in 1948 to teach philosophy at Princeton University, where he remained until his retirement in 1953. He was prominent in the Catholic intellectual resurgence, with a keen perception of modern French literature. Although Maritain regarded metaphysics as central to civilization and metaphysically his position was Thomism, he took full measure of the intellectual currents of his time and articulated a resilient and vital Thomism, applying the principles of scholasticism to contemporary issues. In 1963, Maritain was honored by the French literary world with the national Grand Prize for letters. He learned of the award at his retreat in a small monastery near Toulouse where he had been living in ascetic retirement for some years. In 1967, the publication of "The Peasant of the Garonne" disturbed the French Roman Catholic world. In it, Maritain attacked the "neo-modernism" that he had seen developing in the church in recent decades, especially since the Second Vatican Council. According to Jaroslav Pelikan, writing in the Saturday Review of Literature, "He laments that in avant-garde Roman Catholic theology today he can 'read nothing about the redeeming sacrifice or the merits of the Passion.' In his interpretation, the whole of the Christian tradition has identified redemption with the sacrifice of the cross. But now, all of that is being discarded, along with the idea of hell, the doctrine of creation out of nothing, the infancy narratives of the Gospels, and belief in the immortality of the human soul." Maritain's wife, Raissa, also distinguished herself as a philosophical author and poet. The project of publishing Oeuvres Completes of Jacques and Raissa Maritain has been in progress since 1982, with seven volumes now in print.