## Elastic Wave Velocity and Attenuation as Used to Define Phases of Loading and Failure in Coal |

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103 lb Figure 22 LOAD amplitude Attenuation _ attenuation and velocity attenuation coefﬁcient attenuation curve attenuation of waves attenuation values attenuation versus load axial load behavior 8.5 bulk modulus change in velocity coal pillar coal sample conﬁnement pressure conﬁning pressure core samples corresponding to phase deﬁned dynamic elastic constants elastic wave velocities ﬁg ﬁlter ﬂattens fractures ft/s initial loading layer cavities lb ATTENAUTION load for triaxial load for uniaxial load increments loading and failure LVDT’s measured microfractures normalized velocity oscilloscope P-wave and S-wave phases of behavior phases of loading Poisson’s ratio postfailure Ratios of P-wave receiving transducer S-wave attenuation S-wave signal S-wave triaxial S-wave velocity S—wave sample failure sample loading shear modulus showing the three steel platens three phases trends triaxial 12 triaxial 19 triaxial test uniaxial and triaxial uniaxial test Velocity __ velocity and attenuation velocity values velocity-attenuation curves waves versus load yield zone Young’s modulus ZS Velocity