Electric Vehicles: Likely Consequences of U. S. and Other National Programs and Policies
DIANE Publishing, 1995 - 137 pages
California & several northeastern states have adopted or are considering legislation that would require auto manufacturers-- both foreign & domestic -- to supply some 70,000 electric vehicles in 1998 & nearly a million by 2003. This report examines international electric vehicle development & commercialization programs. Encompasses a review of current barriers to widespread electric vehicle implementation, field visits in seven nations, & the U.S. to examine electric vehicle programs & policies, & analysis of electric vehicle effects on economics, energy, & the environment.
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Advanced Battery Consortium afvs Agency air pollution air quality alternatively fueled vehicles battery research battery technology battery types California carbon dioxide carbon monoxide cars charging stations Citistromer commercial comparable icev consumer Costs of EVs crashworthiness Current Barriers Department of Energy driving Economics effects of introducing Electric Vehicle Policies electric vehicle programs Environment environmental estimated France funding gasoline Germany goals greenhouse gas hybrid vehicle hydrocarbons icevs imported oil increases industry infrastructure internal combustion engine introducing evs Japan lead acid batteries life-cycle costs mandates miles million National and Regional nations we reviewed nickel cadmium batteries nickel metal hydride nitrogen oxides oecd officials operating petroleum Policies and Programs potential power plants production volumes range recharging reduce Regional Effects research and development safety sodium sulfur batteries substantially sulfur dioxide sulfur dioxide emissions Sweden Switzerland Table technical top speed transportation U.S. Cities United Kingdom urban usabc Widespread zero-emission vehicles
Page 44 - Its work has been supported equally by the Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation; it has also received important support from the American Physical Society and from the American Institute of Physics.
Page 136 - Primary Criteria With Mid-Term and Long-Term Goals Primary criteria Mid-term goals Long-term goals Power density W/L 250 600 Specific power W/kg (80% DOD/30 sec) 150...
Page 56 - I I 1 compact EVS on the Swiss market The prices for these vehicles are between $12,580 and $24,820, or 50-percent to 100-percent higher than prices for corresponding ICEVS.
Page 136 - Self-discharge < 15% in 48 hours < 15% per month Maintenance No maintenance; service by qualified personnel only No maintenance; service by qualified personnel only Thermal loss (for high temperature batteries) 3.2...
Page 121 - Department recognizes the importance of ensuring that the first generation of mass-marketed electric vehicles is problem- free, meets customer requirements, and is supported by the requisite infrastructure. There are several related activities supported by the Department that the General Accounting Office should note. The Department's Site Operator Program is a Joint effort by government, utilities, and educational institutions to test and evaluate near-tent electric vehicles and their associated...
Page 44 - The second is to promote competitiveness by developing and introducing manufacturing technologies and practices that will reduce the time and cost associated with designing a new vehicle and bringing it to the marketplace.
Page 121 - The participants are located in various regions of the country allowing electric vehicles to be tested in a wide range of climate, weather conditions, and terrain. Electric vehicles are used as delivery vans and trucks, commuter vehicles, and in mixed categories of transportation; others are used primarily for demonstrations to increase public awareness of these vehicles. The vehicles being tested are provided by original equipment manufacturers, as well as by small conversion companies. A participant...
Page 26 - Renewable Energy Laboratory, Environmental. Health, and Safety Issues of Sodium-Sulfur Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, vol.