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advantage alloy alternating current amount amperes arc furnaces arc heating blast furnace bricks carbon electrodes charcoal charge circuit coil coke conductor connected considerable cost cross-section crucible current density deoxidation dolomite efficiency electric conductor electric current electric furnace electric heating electric steel electrode consumption energy ferro-silicon figures furnace operation gases Girod furnace graphite hearth furnace Heroult furnace inches increase induction furnace influence iron and steel Kjellin furnace lime lines of force losses lower magnesite magnetic manganese material melting metallurgical metric molten metal necessary obtained open hearth open hearth furnace oxide phase furnace phosphorus pig iron possible power consumption power factor practical produced radiation reducing refining regulation Rochling-Rodenhauser furnace scrap shaft furnace shown in Fig shows silicon single phase slag smelting specific resistance Stassano furnace sulphur temperature tests three phase tion tons transformer type of furnace voltage volts water cooling
Page 49 - It was shown, in connection with the study of the theory of the dynamo, that whenever a conductor is moved in a magnetic field so as to cut lines of force, an EMF is induced in the conductor.
Page 373 - The authors have come to the conclusion that with the aid of the modern electric furnace, and given satisfactory conditions, the economic manufacture of steel direct from ore is a practical ' possibility. The material produced will be superior to that manufactured by present methods, and will have properties of the greatest importance and value to the steel user. A special type of furnace will probably be developed, although the standard Heroult furnace is satisfactory for occasional charges. The...
Page 179 - W dissipated in a metallic wire is proportional to the product of the square of the current / and the time t during which that current flows.
Page 23 - The heat developed by a current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the time, proportional to the resistance, and proportional to the square of the current.
Page v - The book is divided into two parts, of which the first deals with...
Page 265 - Cornthwaite that it took about 170 kw. to keep the charge melted when the furnace was kept up to heat over night.] 5.30: Current 2370 A, 265 V, 395 kw.
Page 374 - Heroult furnace is satisfactory for occasional charges. The charge should lie deep in the furnace, to permit violent ebullition of the bath without overflowing. Anthracite electrodes will probably be found most satisfactory owing to their freedom from breakages. The best use for this process will be found in countries that possess readily available sources of water power together with deposits of pure rich ores. Charcoal, coke or anthracite coal can be used as fuel. In countries where cheap power,...
Page 30 - Since the heat generated is proportional to the square of the current, the temperature of the water will (except for heat losses) be raised in the same proportion.
Page 375 - Ability to use refractory and richer ores, such as titaniferous magnetites, &c. 5. Freedom of the steel from impurities. 6. Speed of manufacture. 7. General cost depends largely on cost of electric power, but will be cheaper than the electrical production of steel from pig iron. 8. Less labour needed. 9. Metallurgical simplicity of the process. 10. Efficient control of quality of steel to be obtained, both from an analytical and physical point of view.
Page 143 - The total absence of electrical parts in the furnace proper, it being nothing else but a modified open hearth with the heat introduced above the metal by the electric current in place of gas. This in itself is an important factor as it does away with the bottom pole...