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Electric Smelting Plant and Equipment
Electric Smelting of Pig Iron
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75 per cent alloy aluminium arc furnace blast furnace busbars calcined calcium carbide carbide furnace carbon content cassiterite cent Mn cent Si alloy charge chrome chromium coal coke breeze concentrates contain copper diameter electric furnace electric smelting electrode energy consumption entropy ferro ferro-alloy ferro-manganese ferro-nickel ferro-silicon ferrochrome flux free energy furnace gas furnace operation grade graphite hearth heat increase kcal kiln kWh per tonne ladle lime liquid low-carbon magnesite manganese manufacture matte melting metallurgical molten mould nickel open-top oxide oxygen pellets phase phosphorus pig iron plant power consumption power-factor practice pre-reduction preheating pressure production ratio raw materials reactants reaction recovery reducing agent resistance roof rotary kiln shell shown in Fig silica silico-manganese silicon alloys silicon metal sinter slag smelting smelting furnace smelting operation steel submerged-arc furnace sulphide sulphur Table tap-hole tapped temperature tonnes transformer vanadium voltage