Electroacoustical Reference Data

Front Cover
John Eargle
Springer Science & Business Media, May 1, 1995 - Science - 378 pages
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The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis sion in reverberant and free fields, sound absorption and diffraction, and directional characteris tics of basic sound radiators. B. Loudspeakers. Loudspeakers are discussed in terms of basic relationships regarding cone excursion, sensitivity, efficiency, and directivity index, power ratings, and architectural layout. c. Microphones. The topics in this section include microphone sensitivity and noise rating, analysis of directional properties, stereo microphone array characteristics, proximity effects, and boundary conditions. D. Signal Transmission.
 

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Contents

Sound Pressure and dB Lr Sound Pressure Level
2
Frequency and Wavelength in Air
4
Inverse Square Losses in a Free Field
6
Attenuation with Distance from Plane and Line Sources in a Free Field
8
Atmospheric Sound Absorption as a Function of Frequency and Relative Humidity I
10
Atmospheric Sound Absorption as a Function of Frequency and Relative Humidity II
12
Atmospheric Absorption Due to Inverse Square Losses and Relative Humidity
14
NC and PNC Noise Criteria Curves
16
HigherOrder Microphone Characteristics
188
Microphone Line Losses
190
SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
193
Time Constant versus Frequency
194
RIAA Disc Preemphasis and Deemphasis
197
FM Broadcasting Preemphasis and Deemphasis
198
Early 78 rpm and 33 rpm Disc Preemphasis and Deemphasis Standards
201
Motion Picture Mono Optical Reproduce Standard
202

Sound Transmission Class STC Curves
18
Helmholtz Resonators
20
Resonance Frequency for Pipes Open at Both Ends
22
End Correction for Pipes
24
Resonance Frequency for Pipes Open at One End
26
Diffraction of Sound by a Cylinder a Cube and a Sphere
28
Response Curves Showing Diffraction by 10 Objects of Different Shape
30
Fresnel Diffraction over Sound Barriers
32
Definition of Critical Distance
34
Room Constant as a Function of Surface Area and Absorption
36
Relation between 5 and In 15 in Reverberation Time Calculations
38
Reverberant Level as a Function of Room Constant and Acoustical Power
40
Mean Free Path MFP Room Volume and Surface Area
42
Sound Attenuation over Distance in Semireverberant Spaces
44
Critical Distance as a Function of Room Constant and Directivity Factor
46
Acoustical Power Required to Produce a Level of 94 dB Lp as a Function of Room
48
Volume and Reverberation Time
49
Sound Pressure Level Produced by 1 Acoustic Watt as a Function of Room Constant and Distance from Source
50
Estimation of Total Absorption When Room Volume and Reverberation Time Are Known
52
Estimation of Room Constant When Room Volume and Reverberation Time Are Known
54
Estimation of Room Boundary Area When Volume Is Known
56
Reverberation Time Ratios with and without Atmospheric Losses
59
Relationship between Directivity Factor and Directivity Index
60
Wave number k as a Function of Piston Size and Frequency
62
Polar Response of a Piston Mounted in a Large Baffle
64
Polar Response of a Piston Mounted at the End of a Long Tube
67
Polar Response of an Unbaffled Piston
68
Offaxis Response of a Piston in a Large Baffle
70
Directivity of a Piston in a Large Baffle at the End of a Long Tube and in Free Space
71
LOUDSPEAKERS
75
Transmission Coefficient versus Frequency for a Piston Mounted in a Large Baffle
76
Normalized Mutual Coupling for Multiple Pistons
78
Acoustical Power Output Produced on One Side of a Piston in a Large Baffle as a Function of Amplitude Radius and Frequency
80
Sound Pressure Level Produced by a Piston in a Large Baffle at a Distance of 1 Meter as a Function of Amplitude Radius and Frequency
82
Sound Pressure Level Produced by a Piston in a Large Baffle as a Function of Radiated Power and Distance
84
Peak Amplitude for 1 Acoustical Watt Radiated by a Piston into HalfSpace as a Function of Radius and Frequency
86
Transducer Cone Deflection as a Function of Resonance Frequency
88
Second Harmonic Distortion in Horns
90
Frequency Modulation FM Distortion in Cone Transducers
92
Nominal Loudspeaker Efficiency as a Function of Onaxis Sensitivity and Directivity Index
94
Sensitivity Ratings for Loudspeaker Systems
96
Plane Wave Tube PWT Sensitivity Ratings for Compression Drivers
98
Radiation Resistance for Various Horn Flare Development Curves
100
HighFrequency Driver Electrical Derating for Flat Power Response Equalization
102
Duty CycleRelated Power Ratings
104
Resistance Change with Temperature for Copper
106
Weighting Curves for Loudspeaker Power Measurements
108
House Equalization Standard Curves for Sound Reinforcement and Program Monitoring
110
Transducer Sensitivity as a Function of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature
112
Relation between 2n and 4n Loading and Baffle Size
114
Horn Mouth Size versus 6 dB Beamwidth Control
116
Beamwidth Control of Multicellular Horns
118
Beamwidth Narrowing with Vertical Stacked Horn Arrays
120
Directivity versus Horizontal and Vertical Beamwidth
122
Beamwidth and Directivity Characteristics of a Pair of 250mrn 10in LowFrequency Transducers
124
Beamwidth and Directivity Characteristics of a Pair of 300mm 12in LowFrequency Transducers
126
Hexagonal Array
130
Square Array
132
Dividing Networks 6 dB per Octave Slopes
134
Dividing Networks 12 dB per Octave Slopes
136
Porting Data for Vented Loudspeaker Enclosures
138
ThieleSmall Parameters for LowFrequency Horn Applications
140
Simple Line Arrays
142
MICROPHONES
145
Nomograph for Microphone Output Power and Voltage versus Microphone Impedance
146
Microphone SelfNoise Rating Curves
148
El A GM Microphone Sensitivity Rating
150
FirstOrder Microphone Pattern Data
152
MidSideXY Conversion Data
154
Random Energy Efficiency Directivity Factor and Distance Factor as a Function of Polar Pattern
156
FronttoTotal Ratio as a Function of Polar Pattern
158
FrontBack Ratio versus Polar Pattern
160
Omni and Bidirectional Components of the FirstOrder Cardioid Family
162
BacktoBack Cardioid Components of the Firstorder Cardioid Family 164
166
MidSide MS and XY Microphone Pairs
168
Multipath and Muldmicrophone Interference Effects
170
Effect of Dipole Dimension on Directional Microphone Frequency Response
172
Basic Proximity Effect in Directional Microphones
174
Proximity Effect in a Dipole Microphone at Several Distances
177
Onaxis Proximity Effect in a Cardioid Microphone at Several Distances
178
Proximity Effect in a Cardioid Microphone as a Function of Azimuth Angle
180
Onaxis and Diffuse Field Incidence Response of Omnidirectional Microphones
182
Delay versus Level for Accent Microphones in Recording
184
Microphone Boundary Size versus 27t to 4lt Transition Frequency
186
Digital Preemphasis and Deemphasis Standard
204
Comparison of Meters Used in Broadcasting and Recording
206
Power Ratios Expressed in dBm
208
Voltage Ratios Expressed in dBu
210
Power Ratios Expressed in dBW
212
Voltage Ratios Expressed in dBV
214
Sine Wave Voltage Output versus DC Voltage Capability
216
Resistance Values for Various Lengths and Gauges of Copper Wire
218
Metric Wire Gauges
221
HighFrequency Transducer Protection Capacitors
222
Design of Symmetrical Tpads
224
Design of Lpads
226
Summing of Levels
228
Distortion Percentage and Level
230
Load Impedance as a Function of Power Input in 70volt 100volt and 25volt Distribution Systems
232
Maximum Wire Runs for 0 5dB Loss in 70volt Systems
234
Peak and rms Values of Waveforms
236
Input and Output Impedances of Electronic Devices
238
Loudspeaker Damping Factor as a Function of Line Length and Wire Gauge
242
Direct Field Considerations
244
Reverberant Field Considerations
246
One Channel to Two
248
One Channel to Three
250
One Channel to Four
252
Effect of Noise on Speech Communication
254
Equivalent Acoustic Distance EAD and AWeighted Noise Level
256
Hor n Coverage Angle as Seen in Plan View
258
Peutzs Percentage Articulation Loss of Consonants AlIOJ
260
Augspurgers Modification of Peutzs Data
262
Calculation of Articulation Index AI
264
Typical Motion Picture Screen Losses
266
House Equalization Standard for Motion Picture Systems
268
Adjustments for House Size
270
ISO Preferred Numbers
272
PSYCHOACOUSTICAL DATA
275
FletcherMunson Equal Loudness Contours
276
RobinsonDadson Equal Loudness Contours
278
ChurcherKing Equal Loudness Contours
280
Determination of Twice Loudness at Low Frequencies
282
Calculation of Loudness in Sones
284
Standard Weighting Curves
286
Loudness and Signal Duration
288
Pitch and Level Relationships I
290
Pitch and Level Relationships II
292
Frequency and Pitch Relationships
294
Critical Bandwidth
296
Annoyance Due to Echo Effects
298
Blauert and Laws Criterion for the Audibility of Signal Group Delay
300
Optimum Reverberation Time as a Function of Room Volume and Usage
302
Optimum Reverberation Time as a Function of Frequency
304
Subjective Effects of First Reflections in a Concert Hall
306
Binaural Lateral Masking
308
Franssens Data
310
The Precedence Effect Haas Effect
312
Bauers Stereophonic Law of Sines
314
Pressures and Pressure Levels Generated by a Variety of Sound Sources
316
Typical Male Speech Spectra
318
Hearing Threshold Shift as a Function of Age
320
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
323
Frequency Ranges of Musical Instruments and the Human Voice
324
Dynamic Ranges of Wind and String Instruments
326
Directional Properties of Brass Instruments
328
Directional Properties of Woodwind Instruments
330
Directional Properties of String Instruments
332
Octave Band Spectral Amplitude Distribution Music Sources
334
ANALOG MAGNETIC RECORDING
339
Track Width Standards for Professional Magnetic Recording
340
Track Width Standards for Consumer Tape Formats
343
Azimuth Losses in Tape Playback
344
Oxide Thickness Losses in Tape Playback
346
Spacing Losses in Tape Playback
348
Gap Length Losses in Tape Playback
350
Reference Surface Flurivity Standards for Tape Recording
352
IEC Equalization Standards for Professional Tape Playback
355
NAB National Association of Broadcasters Standard for Professional Tape Playback
356
AES Audio Engineering Society Standard for Professional Tape Playback at 76 cmsec 30 insec
358
Standards for Playback of Consumer Tape Formats
360
IEC to NAB Conversion at 38 cmsec
363
IEC to NAB Conversion at 19 cmsec 364
366
Unit Conversion Table
368
References
369
Index
375
Copyright

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Page 377 - Electrical versus Acoustical Parameters in the Design of Loudspeaker Crossover Networks,
Page 377 - Backus J. 1969. The Acoustical Foundations of Music. New York: WW Norton.

References to this book

The Microphone Book
John Eargle
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Handbook for Sound Engineers
Glen Ballou
No preview available - 2005

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