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Straight pipe flow through an externally applied magnetic field
Turbulent flow in curved pipes
3 other sections not shown
analogy approximately axial direction axial velocity profiles Boersma boundary conditions bulk velocity calculations cells centrifugal force computational domain curved pipe flow Dean number Dennis denotes Direct Numerical Simulation discretization dissipation electric potential distribution electrodes electromagnetic flowmeter equal experiment experimental data filter finite volume method following relation frequencies friction velocity fully developed Furthermore geometry given governing equations grid points homogeneous magnetic field induced electric potential instability integration Kolmogorov length scale Large Eddy Simulation Lorentz force magnetic induction magnetic Reynolds number magneto hydrodynamic measured Navier-Stokes equations orthogonal pipe bend pipe diameter pipe wall Poisson equation potential difference power spectra pressure gradient radial resistive plasma resolved Reynolds stress rotation scheme secondary motion shown in Figure Smagorinsky model Spectral methods spectrum standard pipe flow straight pipe flow stream function subgrid model tokamak toroidal direction torus turbulent flow turbulent pipe flow vector velocity field velocity fluctuations viscosity vorticity wordt zero zijn