## Electromagnetic excitation: theory of Coulomb excitation with heavy ionsEllipsometry is a unique optical technique of great sensitivity for in situ non-destructive characterization of surface (inter-facial) phenomena (reactions) utilizing the change in the state of polarization of a light-wave probe. Although known for almost a century, the use of ellipsometry has increased rapidly in the last two decades. Among the most significant recent developments are new applications, novel and automated instrumentation and techniques for error-free data analysis. This book provides the necessary analytical and experimental tools needed for competent understanding and use of these developments. It is directed to those who are already working in the field and, more importantly, to the newcomer who would otherwise have to sift through several hundred published papers. The authors first present a comprehensive study of the different mathematical representations of polarized light and how such light is processed by optical systems, going on to show how these tools are applied to the analysis of ellipsometer systems. To relate ellipsometric measurements to surface properties, use is then made of electromagnetic theory. Experimental techniques and apparatus are described and the many interesting applications of ellipsometry to surface and thin-film phenomena are reviewed. This reference work is addressed to researchers and students with a strong interest in surface and thin-film physics and optics and their applications. It is a must for libraries in the fields of solid state physics, physical chemistry, electro-chemistry, metallurgy and optical engineering. |

### What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

### Contents

INTRODUCTION | 1 |

SEMICLASSICAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION | 14 |

Semiclassical picture | 17 |

Smatrix formalism | 21 |

Coupled differential equations | 28 |

Coupled equations in Fourier components | 33 |

Effect of highlying states | 35 |

Effects of decaying states | 38 |

The diagonalization procedure | 175 |

The sudden approximation | 178 |

Deviations from the sudden approximation | 184 |

Deviations from the xapproximation | 186 |

Excitation of two weakly coupled groups of states | 187 |

Simultaneous and mutual excitation | 189 |

Symmetrization of the parameters | 191 |

CHAPTER VTI MULTIPLE EXCITATION OF VIBRATIONAL STATES | 194 |

Symmetries invariances and coordinate systems | 43 |

Parametrization of orbital motion | 49 |

CROSS SECTIONS AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS | 56 |

Polarization in Coulomb excitation | 58 |

Angular distribution of gamma rays | 63 |

Gamma cascades following Coulomb excitation | 69 |

Perturbation of angular distribution | 74 |

FIRSTORDER PERTURBATION THEORY | 77 |

Classical orbital integrals | 80 |

Excitation probabilities | 89 |

Cross section and angular distribution | 93 |

Magnetic excitation | 108 |

Multipolemultipole excitation | 115 |

Quantum mechanical effects | 118 |

HIGHERORDER PERTURBATION THEORY | 121 |

Double integrals | 125 |

Excitation probabilities and cross sections | 129 |

Angular distribution of gamma rays | 131 |

Double excitations | 134 |

Effects of static moments | 149 |

Polarization effects | 158 |

Higherorder perturbation theory | 162 |

MULTIPLE EXCITATIONS | 165 |

The coupled differential equations | 168 |

Evaluation of the excitation amplitude | 198 |

Vibrational excitation of spherical nuclei | 201 |

Vibrational excitation of deformed nuclei | 203 |

Classical treatment of vibrational excitations | 206 |

MULTIPLE EXCITATION OF DEFORMED NUCLEI | 210 |

Excitation in the sudden approximation | 215 |

Excitation of the ground state band | 217 |

Excitation of other rotational bands | 222 |

Deviation from the sudden approximation | 229 |

Classical treatment | 233 |

Effects of higher multipole moments | 235 |

QUANTUM MECHANICAL TREATMENT | 237 |

Perturbation theory | 241 |

The WKB approximation | 248 |

Discussion of quantum mechanical corrections | 257 |

APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS | 263 |

TORBEN units | 268 |

Projectile and target excitation | 274 |

Range of parameters | 277 |

Thick targets | 285 |

APPENDICES | 297 |

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SYMBOLS | 344 |

REFERENCES | 359 |

Copyright | |