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Schematic of rock samples showing position of antennas and PPT
Output of antenna 1 Red Texas Granite sample
0.96 millisecond 160 FREQUENCY 2.6 TIME milliseconds 40 kilohertz accel acceleration accelerometer acoustic emission acoustic location amplitude variations antenna responses Axial load Barre Granite biotite Bureau of Mines bursts of electromagnetic Carthage Marble containing piezoelectric minerals crack Dakota Sandstone decibel detected directionality electromagnetic energy electromagnetic radiation exoelectrons failure zone figure 28 final failure fluorite frequency range Galena Quartzite geophones grain hertz individual failure event kilohertz 200 FIGURE kilohertz FIGURE kilonewtons lisecond load cell load-bearing axis Mather Iron maximum peak-to-peak amplitude mechanism of emission megahertz megapascals meters per second microseconds millimeters milliseconds FIGURE monitor monopole antennas Nitsan 15 observed occurred Output of antenna piezoelectric field preliminary fractures quartz RADIATION FROM ROCK Red Texas Granite Response of antenna RF emission rock failure Rock types sharply peaked shifts skin depth specimen Spectra of antenna stress drop sudden load drop taconite tests three antennas TIME,milliseconds FIGURE uniaxial compression velocity X-direction