Electronics System Design Techniques for Safety Critical Applications

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 10, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 146 pages
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What is exactly “Safety”? A safety system should be defined as a system that will not endanger human life or the environment. A safety-critical system requires utmost care in their specification and design in order to avoid possible errors in their implementation that should result in unexpected system’s behavior during his operating “life”. An inappropriate method could lead to loss of life, and will almost certainly result in financial penalties in the long run, whether because of loss of business or because the imposition of fines. Risks of this kind are usually managed with the methods and tools of the “safety engineering”. A life-critical system is designed to 9 lose less than one life per billion (10 ). Nowadays, computers are used at least an order of magnitude more in safety-critical applications compared to two decades ago. Increasingly electronic devices are being used in applications where their correct operation is vital to ensure the safety of the human life and the environment. These application ranging from the anti-lock braking systems (ABS) in automobiles, to the fly-by-wire aircrafts, to biomedical supports to the human care. Therefore, it is vital that electronic designers be aware of the safety implications of the systems they develop. State of the art electronic systems are increasingly adopting progr- mable devices for electronic applications on earthling system. In particular, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices are becoming very interesting due to their characteristics in terms of performance, dimensions and cost.
 

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Contents

AN INTRODUCTION TO FPGA DEVICES IN RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS From the architecture to the model
3
1 PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED HARDENING TECHNIQUES
6
11 Reconfigurablebased techniques
7
12 Redundancybased techniques
8
2 PRELIMINARIES OF SRAMBASED FPGAS ARCHITECTURE
11
22 FPGA routing graph
13
RADIATION EFFECTS ON SRAMBASED FPGAS Modeling and simulation of radiations effects
17
1 RADIATION EFFECTS
18
3 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
79
A NOVEL DESIGN FLOW FOR FAULT TOLERANCE SRAMBASED FPGA SYSTEMS Integrated synthesis design flow and performance otpimiza...
85
1 THE DESIGN FLOW
87
11 STAR analyzer
88
12 RoRA router
89
21 The congestion graph
90
22 The voter architectures and arithmetic modules
91
23 The VPlace algorithm
92

11 Single Event Upset SEU
19
12 Single Event LatchUp SEL
20
2 SEU EFFECTS ON FPGAS CONFIGURATION MEMORY
21
3 SIMULATIONBASED ANALYSIS OF SEUs
23
32 Fault simulation tool
26
33 Experimental results
28
4 HARDWAREBASED ANALYSIS OF SEUs
30
41 Details on the Xilinx Triple Modular Redundancy
32
43 Experimental results
35
5 ROBUSTNESS OF THE TMR ARCHITECTURE
37
51 Analysis of the fault effects
39
6 CONSTRAINTS FOR ACHIEVING FAULT TOLERANCE
42
ANALYTICAL ALGORITHMS FOR FAULTY EFFECTS ANALYSIS Single and multiple upsets errors
46
1 OVERVIEW ON STATIC ANALYSIS ALGORITHM
49
2 ANALYTICAL DEPENDABLE RULES
51
3 THE STAR ALGORITHM FOR SEU ANALYSIS
52
31 The dynamic evaluation platform
54
32 Experimental results of SEU static analysis
55
4 THE STAR ALGORITHM FOR MCU ANALYSIS
56
41 Analysis of errors produced by MCUs
58
42 Experimental results of MCU static analysis
67
RELIABILITYORIENTED PLACE AND ROUTE ALGORITHM Dependable design on SRAMbased FPGAs
71
1 RoRA PLACEMENT ALGORITHM
73
2 RoRA ROUTING ALGORITHM
76
3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
93
31 Timing analysis
94
32 Evaluating the proposed design flow
96
33 Evaluating a realistic circuit
97
CONFIGURATION SYSTEM BASED ON INTERNAL FPGA DECOMPRESSION A new configuration architecture
103
2 OVERVIEW ON THE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED DECOMPRESSION SYSTEMS
105
21 Generalities of SRAMbased FPGAs
107
3 THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
108
4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
111
41 Compression system results
112
RECONFIGURABLE DEVICES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DNA MICROARRAY A complete gene expression profiling platform
116
2 OVERVIEW ON THE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
119
3 PRELIMINARIES OF DNA MICROARRAY IMAGE ANALYSIS
121
31 The edge detection algorithm
122
4 THE PROPOSED DNA MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ARCHITECTURE
123
41 The edge detection architecture
125
42 The quality assessment core
128
5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
129
RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTE FABRIC ARCHITECTURES A new design paradigm
133
1 INTRODUCTION TO RCF DEVICES
134
2 THE ReCoM ARCHITECTURE
135
3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
141
Index
143
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About the author (2008)

Winner of the EDAA (European Design Automation Association) Outstanding Monograph Award in the Reconfigurable Electronics section

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