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Theory of Measurements
Measurement of Linear Distances
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accurate Adjustment alidade angle BAC azimuth backsight bench mark calculated capstan screws celestial sphere chaining clamped clockwise closed traverse computed contour lines contours coordinates corners correct COTANGENTS cross-section determined Diff difference of elevation direction Dist Dumpy level elongation engineer's scale error of closure feet field foot formula grade ground hand level horizontal cross hair horizontal distance horizontal plane inch instru intersection latitudes and departures lengths and bearings level bubble leveling screws line of sight magnetic bearings magnetic declination measured ment method observation obtained offset plane table plotted plumb bob Polaris pole position precise protractor pull Purpose.—To right angles rod reading scale shown in Fig sides squares stadia stakes standard station steel tape surveying surveyor TANGENTS telescope telescope tube tion topographic transit traverse line triangle tripod unit vernier vertical angle vertical axis vertical circle wyes zero