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Elements of Normal Speech
Elements of Stuttering
Elements of Therapy
2 other sections not shown
acoustic adult stutterers airflow alpha rhythm anxiety articulation articulatory associated attempts auditory feedback basic stuttering behavior of stuttering bilateral brainstem cerebral cerebral cortex child coarticulation complicating behaviors consonants core behavior cortical discussed displays duration dysfluencies effects emotion example factors Figure fluency fluent utterances following sounds foregoing formant transitions frequency function indicated initial sounds initiate phonation interaural time difference internal bodily changes intraphonemic disruptions involved lack laryngeal motor speech movement muscles neural nonfluency nonstuttered normal speech observed occur onset part-sound part-syllable repetitions patterns phase of therapy phonatory phonemes Porky Pig practice procedure progress prolongations rate of speech reflexes reticular formation second sound sensory serves sound spectrography spectrographic speech mechanism speech production speech sounds Stromsta stut stutterers and nonstutterers successful utterance syllables terers tering terminations of phonation therapists tion tonic blocks vocal folds vocal tract voice onset voice reaction voiced or voiceless whereas words