## Elements of Surveying: With a Description of the Instruments and the Necessary Tables, Including a Table of Natural Sines |

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### Common terms and phrases

adjustment angle of elevation axis azimuth back-sights base line called centre clamp-screw coincide column comp compass Cosine Sine course curve degrees determined difference of level direction divided double meridian distance draw east elongation error example extremity feet field notes figure frustrum given line given point ground Gunter's chain half hence horizontal angle horizontal distance horizontal plane hypothenuse inches instrument intersection Lat Dep latitude and departure length levelling screws line AC line of collimation logarithm M.
M. Sine marked measure method multiplied N.CS natural sines needle object opposite station paper parallel passing perpendicular pins plane of reference protractor radius right angles rods scale of equal secant side sights similar triangles Sine Cotang spider's lines square chains staff subtract surface survey Tang tangent theodolite true meridian ttta vernier plate vertical limb yards

### Popular passages

Page 20 - FRACTION is a negative number, and is one more than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant Jigure.

Page 57 - ... the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Page 42 - The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees ; each degree into 60 equal parts, called minutes ; and each minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds.

Page 25 - ... 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 N.

Page 36 - This is a scale of two feet in length, on the faces of which a variety of scales are marked. The face on which the divisions of inches are made, contains, however, all the scales necessary for laying down lines and angles. These are, the scale of equal parts, the diagonal scale of equal parts, and the scale of chords, all of which have been described.

Page 138 - Take a board, of about one foot square, paste white paper upon it, and perforate it through the center; the diameter of the hole being somewhat larger than the diameter of the telescope of the theodolite. Let this board be so fixed to a vertical staff" as to slide up and down freely ; and let a small piece of board, about three inches square, be nailed to the lower edge of it, for the purpose of holding a candle.

Page 42 - Mathematics which treats of the solution of plane triangles. In every plane triangle there are six parts : three sides and three angles. When three of these parts are given, one being a side, the remaining parts may be found by computation.

Page 29 - AXIOM is a self-evident truth ; such as, — 1. Things which are equal to the same thing, are equal to each other. 2. If equals be added to equals, the sums will be equal. 3. If equals be taken from equals, the remainders will be equal. 4. If equals be added to unequals, the sums will be unequal.

Page 18 - Find from the table the logarithm of the first four figures, and to it prefix a characteristic less by unity than all the places of figures in the given number. Take from the last column on the right of the page, marked D, the number on the same horizontal line with the logarithm, and multiply this number by the figures that have been considered as ciphers : then cut off from the right hand as many places for decimals as there are figures in the multiplier, and add the product so obtained to the...

Page 91 - ... 10, and the remainder will be the logarithm of double the area of the triangle. Find, from the table, the number answering to this logarithm, and divide it by 2 ; the quotient will be the required area (Geom.