## Elements of Surveying and Leveling |

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Applying logarithms axis azimuth back-sight base-line bearing chord clamp-screw column compass contour lines corresponding Cosine Cosine D Cotang course curve decimal degree of curvature degrees determined difference of level divided double meridian distance draw drawn east error example feet field-notes fore-sight given angle given line given point ground height of instrument hence horizontal angles horizontal distance horizontal plane inch intersection latitude and departure length limb line of collimation mantissa marked measured method multiplied notes offsets paper parallel passing perpendicular plane of reference plot position prismoid protractor radius reading right angles scale of equal screws secant side sights similar triangles spider's lines square chains station subtract surface survey taken tangent theodolite Transit survey traverse vernier plate vertical line yards zoids